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UPSC > Terms, Conventions, Policies & reports

Explore popular questions from Terms, Conventions, Policies & reports for UPSC. This collection covers Terms, Conventions, Policies & reports previous year UPSC questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

Q 1.

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The Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) Protocol adopted by COP-10 at Nagoya is regarding the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of:

The genetic resources of the earth.

B

Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs)

C

Marine and coastal areas significant for 'eco-tourism’.

D

Technology transfer mechanisms for Clean Energy Development.

Explanation

The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way. It entered into force on 12 October 2014. 90 days after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification.

Q 2.

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The ‘Montreaux Record’ is a register of:

A

Invasive Alien Species and their ecological hazards outside their native environment.

Wetland sites under the threat of anthropogenic activities.

C

Endangered species of tropical and sub-tropical fauna.

D

Coastal cities under direct threat of consequences of global warming.

Explanation

The Montreux Record is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference. It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.

Q 3.

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What is carbon credit?

It is the difference between the carbon emission allowed and actually emitted carbon

B

It is the Ioan amount by 1ME for reducing pollution

C

It is the loan given to poor people for buying Modern Stoves

D

All of the above

Explanation

Carbon credit shows that country or any entity emit the carbon below the limit prescribed by the government, hence country or entity can sell it in Exchange where carbon are treated.

Q 4.

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Which among the following multilateral convention seeks to protect the human health and environment from Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)?

A

Bonn Convention

Stockholm Convention

C

Rotterdam Convention

D

Basel Convention

Explanation

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of humans and wildlife, and have harmful impacts on human health or on the environment. In response to this global problem, the Stockholm Convention, which was adopted in 2001 and entered into force in 2004. requires its parties to take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment. As set out in Article 1, the objective of the Stockholm Convention is to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants.

Q 5.

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Which of the following state governments has launched Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Jan Van Vikas Scheme for the development of villages around tiger reserves?

A

Gujarat

Maharashtra

C

Madhya Pradesh

D

Rajasthan

Explanation

Maharashtra Cabinet has approved Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Jan Van Vikas Scheme for development of villages around tiger reserves. Aim of this scheme is comprehensive development of villages in and around the buffer zones of tiger reserves.

Q 6.

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The NTCA has recently declared which two national parks as tiger reserves?

Kudremukh and Rajaji

B

Ratapani and Sunabeda

C

Guru Ghasidas and Rajaji

D

Rajaji and Sunabeda

Explanation

The NTCA has accorded final approval to Kudremukh National Park in Karnataka and Rajaji National Park in Uttarkhand for being declared as tiger reserves by respective states.

Q 7.

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Which one of the following committee was constituted to review environmental laws in the country'?

Subramanian Committee

B

Kasturi Rangan Committee

C

Madhav Nair Committee

D

Ullas Karanth Committee

Explanation

T S R Subramanian Committee was constituted to review environmental laws in India. The committee has submitted its recommendations to the government recently.

Q 8.

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In context of environment, the term “dirty dozen” refers to

A

12 most harmful greenhouse gases

B

12 ozone depleting substances

12 persistent organic pollutants

D

none of the above

Explanation

12 persistent organic pollutants. These were the 12 initial compounds that were listed under the Stockholm convention.

Q 9.

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The United Nations Frame work Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty drawn at:

A

United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 1972

UN Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janerio. 1992

C

World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 2002

D

UN Climate change conference,Copenhagen, 2009

Explanation

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, as a framework for international cooperation to combat climate change by limiting average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and coping with impacts that were, by then, inevitable

Q 10.

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Which among the following multilateral environment agreements (MEAs) is not correctly paired with the respective issue it deals with?

A

Montreal Protocol of 1987 - Ozone Depleting Substances

B

Bonn Convention of 1979 - The conservation of Migratory Species

Basel Convention of 1989 - Regulation of transboundary movement.transit, handling and use of Living Modified Organisms.

D

Rotterdam Convention of 1998 - Consensual International Trade in certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides.

Explanation

The Basel Convention on the Control of Trans- boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, usually known simply as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). It docs not. however, address the movement of radioactive waste.

Q 11.

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The declaration reached at the 16th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 2010 is also called the:

Cancun Agreement

B

Rio Declaration

C

Kyoto Protocol

D

Treaty on Nuclear Disarmament

Explanation

The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancun. Mexico, from 29 November to 10 December 2010. The conference is officially referred to as the 16th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 6th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties (CMP 6) to the Kyoto Protocol. Earth Summit 1992 was the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). commonly known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference. The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol (update) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto. Japan. The international efforts to promote nuclear non proliferation started after World War II. At that time, there was only nuclear arsenal of the world in the United States. A Baruch Plan was proposed in the US in 1946 which recommended the verifiable dismantlement and destruction of the U.S. nuclear arsenal.

Q 12.

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‘Gadgil Committee Report’ and ’Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to:

A

constitutional reforms

B

Ganga Action Plan

C

Linking of rivers

Protection of Western Ghats

Explanation

They are associated with Western Ghat conservation plan.

Q 13.

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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is mandatory under which one of the following India legislations:

A

Indian Forest Act

B

Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act

C

Wildlife Protection Act

Environment (Protection) Act

Explanation

Under Environment (Protection) Act 1986, EIA is now mandatory for 29 categories of developmental activities which involve investment of more than Rs 50 Crores.

Q 14.

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United Nation's Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) defines ‘desertification’ as:

A

Spread and expansion of deserts

B

Deserts encroaching arable lands rendering them useless

Land degradation in dry lands resulting from various factors

D

None of the above

Explanation

UNCCD is one of the Rio conventions that focusses on desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD). Dry lands include arid, semiarid and dry sub humid regions. It dews not connote spread of deserts.

Q 15.

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The ‘Hyderabad pledge' of COP-11 is regarding:

A

Commitment to reduce subsidies

Financial Commitment to Wetland conservation

C

Commitment to reduce emissions

D

Financial commitment to achieve Aichi targets

Explanation

US$50 million during India’s two - year COP presidency, focused on enhancing India's human and technical resources to attain the CBD’s objectives, and for promoting capacity building in developing countries. It established the foundation for the mobilization of resources to achieve the Aichi targets.

Q 16.

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Which of the following addresses traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources considering the rights of the indigenous and local communities?

A

Hyderabad Pledge of COP - 11

B

Nagoya - Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol

Nagoya Protocol

D

All of the above

Explanation

It addresses traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources with provisions on access, benefit - sharing and compliance. It also addresses genetic grant access to them.

Q 17.

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Which among the following awards has been recently instituted by the Government of India for individuals or communities from rural areas that have shown extraordinary courage and dedication in protecting Wildlife?

A

Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar

B

Medini Puruskar Yojana

Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award

D

Pitambar Pant National Award

Explanation

(i) The Kyoto Protocol separates countries into two groups. Annex I includes developed nations, while Non-Annex I refers to developing countries. A CER is a certificate which is issued every time the United Nations prevents one tonne of CO2 equivalent being emitted through carbon projects registered with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). (ii) All three terms are associated with Kyoto Protocol. Therefore, answer “c” 3 only.

Q 18.

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What is ‘Greenhouse Gas Protocol'?

It is an international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify and manage greenhouse gas emissions

B

It is an initiative of the United Nations to offer financial incentives to developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adopt eco-friendly technologies

C

It is an inter-governmental agreement ratified by all the member countries of the United Nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to specified levels by the year 2022

D

It is one of the multilateral REDD+ initiatives hosted by the World Bank

Explanation

Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regards to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. Therefore, only the first statement right.

Q 19.

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‘Net metering’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of promoting the consumers

production and use of solar energy by the households/consumers

B

use of piped natural gas in the kitchens of households

C

installation of CNG kits in motor-cars

D

installation of water meters in urban households

Explanation

(i) A Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid. Net metering allows residential and commercial customers who generate their own electricity from solar power to feed electricity they do not use back into the grid. (ii) Under Net-metering system. Customer installs a solar or windpower plant on his premise, gets it grid-connected with the electricity distribution company (DISCOM) Hence (a) is the apt choice.

Q 20.

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‘Gadgil Committee Report' and ‘Kasturirangan Committee Report’, sometimes seen in the news, are related to

A

constitutional reforms

B

Ganga Action Plan

C

linking of rivers

protection of Western Ghats

Explanation

(i) The Gadgil Commission was an environmental research commission appointed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests of India. The Commission submitted the report to the Government of India on 31 August 2011. The Kasturirangan Committee Report has sought to balance the two concerns of development and environment protection, by watering down the environmental regulation regime proposed by the Western Ghats Ecology Experts Panel’s Gadgil report in 2012. (ii) They're associated with Western Ghat conservation plan.

Q 21.

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The National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) run by Central Pollution Control Board, monitors which of the following pollutants at all locations?
1. Carbon dioxide
2. Sulphur dioxide
3. Oxides of nitrogen
4. Suspended particulate matter
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
Codes:

A

1,2 and 3 only

B

1 ,3 and 4 only

2 ,3 and 4 only

D

1 ,2, and 4 only

Explanation

2 ,3 and 4 only. The objectives of the N.A.M.P. are to determine status and trends of ambient air quality; to ascertain whether the prescribed ambient air quality standards are violated. Under N.A.M.P., four air pollutants viz .. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2). Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM / PM 10) have been identified for regular monitoring at all the locations.

Q 22.

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Which of these pairs are correctly matched ?
1. Minamata convention: mercury
2. Stockholm convention: persistant organic pollutants
3. Basel convention: lead
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
. Codes:

1 and 2 only

B

1 and 3 only

C

2 and 3 only

D

1,2 and 3

Explanation

1 and 2 only. The Basel Convention is for the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. It was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). It does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste. The Minamata Convention on Mercury is an international treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

Q 23.

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Consider the following statements:
1. No human activity is allowed inside tiger reserves
2. Tourism is allowed in national parks
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A

1 only

2 only

C

Both 1 and 2

D

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

2 only. The second statement is a simple fact, which you must know. A tiger reserve has two zones -core and buffer. In the buffer zone, human activity is allowed.

Q 24.

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The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 provides for various categories of protected areas. These include:
1. National parks
2. Wildlife sanctuaries
3. Biosphere reserve
4. Tiger reserves
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
Codes:

A

1 and 2 only

B

1 and 3 only

C

2 and 3 only

1,2 and 4 only

Explanation

Biosphere reserves are created by merely a notification and they DO NOT require legislation. National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, tiger reserves, community reserves, conservation reserves are backed up by the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

Q 25.

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Which of the following are correct
1. Alpha diversity (within-community diversity) refers to the rate of replacement of species along a gradient of habitats or communities.
2. Gamma diversity (overall) refers to the diversity of the habitats over the total landscape or geographical area.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below
Codes:

A

Only 1

B

Only 2

Both 1& 2

D

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

The terms alpha, beta, and gamma diversity were all introduced by R. H. Whittaker to describe the spatial component of biodiversity. Alpha diversity is just the diversity of each site (local species pool). Beta diversity represents the differences in species composition among sites. Gamma diversity is the diversity of the entire landscape (regional species pool).