On account of the disruption in education due to the corona pandemic, we're are providing a 7-day Free trial of our platform to teachers. Know More →

UPSC

Explore popular questions from Science and Technology (Current Affairs) for UPSC. This collection covers Science and Technology (Current Affairs) previous year UPSC questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

Select Subject

Geography

Indian Polity and Governance

Economic and Social Development

Ecology, Biodiversity and Climate Change

Mental Ability and Management Ability

General Knowledge

General Science

Current Affairs

History

Science and Technology (Current Affairs)

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 1. Assertion (A) : Artificial satellites are always launched from the earth in the eastward direction.
Reason (R) : The earth rotates from west to east and so the satellite attains the escape velocity.

A

Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

B

Both A and R are true but R is NOT a correct explanation of A

A is true but R is false

D

A is false but R is true

Explanation

Artificial satellite always launched from the earth to eastward direction because earth rotates from west to east, which makes it Geosynchronus. But the escape velocity is given by the booster of the rocket.3.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 2. Consider the following statements:
1. India launched its first full-fledged meteorological satellite (METSAT) in September, 2002
2. For the first time, the space vehicle PSLV C-4 carried a payload of more than 1000 kg into a geosynchronous orbit
Which of these statement is/are correct?

A

Only 1

B

Only 2

Both 1 and 2

D

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

METSAT was the first Indian (ISRO), Meterological geostationary satellite designed to simultaneously obtain atmospheric cloud cover, water vapour and temperature data. PSLV-C4 carried a payload of 1060 kg in to a geosynchronous orbit.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 3. NASA's Deep Impact space mission was employed to take detailed pictures of which comet nucleus?

A

Halley's Comet

B

Hale-Bopp

C

Hyakutake

Tempel 1

Explanation

Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on January 12, 2005. It was designed to study the interior composition of the comet Tempel 1.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 4. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

A

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) : Satellite Programme

B

Falcon: Under - sea cable system

C

Discovery: Space shuttle

Atlantis: Space station

Explanation

Atlantis was a Space Shuttle orbiter of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 5. Selene-1, the lunar orbiter mission belongs to which one of the followings?

A

China

B

European Union

Japan

D

USA

Explanation

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the Lunar Orbit Explorer "KAGUYA" (SELENE) at on September 14, 2007, from the Tanegashima Space Center. The major objectives of the mission are to understand the Moon's origin and evolution and to observe the Moon in various ways in order to utilize it in the future.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 6. ISRO successfully conducted a rocket test using cryogenic engines in the year 2007. Where is the teststand used for the purpose, located?

A

Balasore

B

Thiruvananthapuram

Mahendragiri

D

Karwar

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 7. Which one of the following is a spacecraft?

A

Apophis

Cassini

C

Spitzer

D

TechSar

Explanation

Cassini is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 8. What is the purpose of the US Space Agency's Themis Mission, which was recently in the news?

A

To study the possibility of life on Mars

B

To study the satellites of Saturn

To study the colourful of display of high latitude skies

D

To build a space laboratory to study the stellar explosions

Explanation

The Themis mission, comprising five identical probes, aims to gain new insights into the colourful displays in high-latitude skies. In particular, scientists want to understand what triggers a sudden brightening of the lights. A US space agency (NASA) has blasted off from Cape Canaveral in Florida.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 9. Consider the following statements in respect of a jet engine and a rocket:
1. A jet engine uses the surrounding air for its oxygen supply and so is unsuitable for motion in space.
2. A rocket carries its own supply of oxygen in the gas form, and fuel.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

1 only

B

2 only

C

Both 1 and 2

D

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

A jet engine combines oxygen from the air with fuel at high temperature. There is usually a spark to ignite the fuel vapor, but once the engine begins turning, it will continue running until it runs out of fuel or air. A rocket, in contrast, carries both fuel (which may be solid or liquid) and oxygen.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 10. Consider the following statements:
The satellite Oceansat-2 launched by India helps in
1. estimating the water vapour content in the atmosphere.
2. predicting the onset of monsoons.
3. monitoring the pollution of coastal waters.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A

1 and 2 only

B

2 only

C

1 and 3 only

1, 2 and 3

Explanation

Oceansat-2 continues with the service of oceansat-1. The main objectives of oceansat-2 are to study surface winds and ocean surface strata, observation of chlorophyll concentration, monitoring of phytoplanktion blooms, study of atmospheric aerosol and suspended sediments in wath.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 11. Satellites used for telecommunication relay are kept in a geostationary orbit. A satellite is said to be in such as orbit when :
1. The orbit is geosynchronous.
2. The orbit is circular.
3. The orbit lies in the plane of the earth's equator.
4. The orbit is at an altitude of 22,236.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

1, 2 and 3 only

B

1, 3 and 4 only

C

2 and 4 only

D

1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation

A geostationary orbit (or Geostationary Earth Orbit - GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earth's equator (0° latitude), with a period equal to the Earth's rotational period and an orbital eccentricity of approximately zero. It is the part of space about 35,786 km (22,236 miles) above sea level, in the plane of the equator, where near-geostationary orbits may be implemented.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 12. An artificial satellite orbiting around the Earth does not fall down. This is so because the attraction of Earth

A

does not exist at such distance

B

is neutralized by the attraction of the moon

C

provides the necessary speed for its steady motion

provides the necessary acceleration for its motion

Explanation

An artificial satellite moving round the Earth in a circular orbit possesses an acceleration which is "constant" in magnitude but "changing in direction". An artificial satellite revolves round the earth under centripetal acceleration. By the launch rocket, immediately before the satellite is established in the predetermined orbit, the speed given to it is 30, 000 km/hr. The speed must be great enough so gravity doesn't bring the satellite back to Earth, but not so great that the satellite escapes gravity out into space. This means that the speed, which is provided by the rocket is the source of the centrifugal force, and the attraction of the earth holds it from moving away from this centrifugal force.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 13. Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

A

1 only

2 and 3 only

C

1 and 3 only

D

1, 2 and 3

Explanation

Cassini-Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn. Therefore, option 1 is wrong, this eliminates option (a), (c) and (d). Now we are left with final answer B only 2 and 3. MESSENGER is a robotic NASA spacecraft orbiting the planet Mercury. Voyager 1 (September 1977) and voyager 2 (Aug 1977) were launched to study the outer Solar System.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 14. In the context of space technology, what is "Bhuvan", recently in the news?

A

A mini satellite launched by ISRO for promoting the distance education in India

B

The name given to the next Moon Impact Probe, for Chandrayan-II

A geoportal of ISRO with 3 D imaging capabilities of India

D

A space telescope developed by India

Explanation

Bhuvan, is a software application which allows users to explore a 2D/3D representation of the surface of the Earth. ISRO launched the beta version of its web-based GIS tool, Bhuvan, on August 12, 2009. Bhuvan offers detailed imagery of Indian locations compared to other Virtual Globe Software, with spatial resolutions ranging up to 1 metre.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 15. Consider the following statements:
1. In November, 2006, DRDO successfully conducted the interception test using Prithvi-II missile.
2. Prithivi-II is a surface-to-surface missile and can be deployed to guard the metros against air attacks.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A

1 only

B

2 only

Both 1 and 2

D

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

Prithvi Air Defence( (PAD) missile was tested in November 2006, followed by AAD in December 2007. With the test of the PAD missile, India became the fourth country to have successfully developed an Anti-ballistic missile system, after United States, Russia, and Israel. On 6 March 2009, India again successfully tested its missile defence shield, during which an incoming "enemy" missile was intercepted at an altitude of 75 km. Prithvi is a tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by DRDO of India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) .It is also a single-stage liquid-fuelled missile having a maximum warhead mounting capability of 500 kg, but with an extended range of 250 km (160 mi).

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 16. What is the Galileo Project which has been in news recently?

A

An intercountry programme of missile shield developed by the United States of America

B

A project developed by India with assistance from Canada

C

An environmental protection project being developed by Japan

A multi-satellite navigation project being developed by the European Union

Explanation

Galileo is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is currently being created by the European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 17. With which one of the following countries did India jointly develop the Barak anti-missile defence systems?

Israel

B

France

C

Russia

D

USA

Explanation

Barak is an Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM) designed to be used as a ship-borne point-defense missile system against aircraft, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs. India and Israel jointly developed and produced it.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 18. In which one of the following locations is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project to be built?

A

Northern Spain

Southern France

C

Eastern Germany

D

Southern Italy

Explanation

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ) is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which is currently building the world's largest experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor adjacent to the Cadarache facility in the south of France.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 19. In the context of the Indian defence, what is 'Dhruv'?

A

Aircraft-carrying warship

B

Missile-carrying submarine

Advanced light helicopter

D

Intercontinental ballistic missile

Explanation

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) has developed the Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH), a light (5.5t class) multirole and multimission helicopter for army, air force, navy, coastguard and civil operations for both utility and attack roles by day and night.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 20. In the context of Indian defence, consider the following statements:
1. The Shourya missile flies with a speed of more than 8 Mach.
2. The range of Shourya missile is more than 1600 km.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

A

1 only

B

2 only

C

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

The missile flew at 7.5 Mach, that is 7.5 times the speed of sound and covered its full range of 700 km in 500 seconds.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 21. With reference to Agni-IV Missile, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a surface-to-surface missile.
2. It is fuelled by liquid propellant only
3. It can deliver one-tonne nuclear warheads about 7500 km away
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

1 only

B

2 and 3 only

C

1 and 3 only

D

1, 2 and 3

Explanation

Agni IV is a surface-to-surface missile. It is fuelled by solid propellant. It can deliver one-tonne nuclear warheads about 4000 km away.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 22. The term 'IndARC', sometimes seen in the news, is the name of

A

an indigenously developed radar system inducted into Indian Defence

B

India's satellite to provide services to the countries of Indian Ocean Rim

C

a scientific establishment set up by India in Antarctic region

India's underwater observatory to scientifically study the Arctic region

Explanation

IndARC stands for India's underwater observatory to scientifically study the Arctic region. This is the country's first underwater moored observatory in the Kongsfjorden fjord, half way between Norway and the North Pole. It represents a major milestone in India's scientific endeavours in the Arctic region. It is developed by Earth System Science Organisation (ESSO), National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) and Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS). IndARC was deployed from RV Lance which is a research vessel belonging to the Norwegian Polar Institute.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 23. In the year 2008, which one of the following conducted a complex scientific experiment in which sub-atomic particles were accelerated to nearly the speed of light?

A

European Space Agency

European Organization for Nuclear Research

C

International Atomic Energy Agency

D

National Aeronautics and Space administration

Explanation

European Organization for Nuclear Research

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 24. Assertion (A) : Dolly was the first cloned mammal.
Reason (R) : Dolly was produced by in vitro fertilization.

A

Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

B

Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A

C

A is true but R is false

A is false but R is true

Explanation

Cloning is a process, which artificially performed in laboratory ( in vitro). Dolly was a clonned animal, but not the first cloned mammal. In 1984 a mice was cloned first.

Correct Marks 2

Incorrectly Marks -0.667

Q 25. Assertion (A) : "DNA finger printing" has become a powerful tool to establish paternity and identity of criminals in rape and assault cases.
Reason (R) : Trace evidences such as hairs, saliva and dried semen are adequate for DNA analysis.
Codes:

Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

B

Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A

C

A is true but R is false

D

A is false but R is true

Explanation

DNA finger printing is the technique which identify paternity and criminals in rape cases, by the help of any tissue sample, hair, saliva or dried semen.