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Explore popular questions from Geography for UPSC. This collection covers Geography previous year UPSC questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

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Q 1. The terms longitude and latitude were first used by

A

Herodotus

Eratosthenes

C

Posidonius

D

Ptolemy

Explanation

The terms longitude and latitude were first used by Eratosthenes. Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist. He was a man of learning, becoming the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria.

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Q 2. The continent through which both the tropic of cancer and the Tropic of capricorn pass is

A

North America

B

Asia

Africa

D

Europe

Explanation

Tropic of cancer. Tropic of Capricorn as well as equator pass through the Africa.

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Q 3. Consider the following statements and select the correct answer using the codes given below:
Assertion (A): The length of the day at the equator is always 12 hours.
Reason (R):The angle of incidence of the Sun’s rays at the equator is constant.

Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

B

Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.

C

A is true, but R is false.

D

A is false, but R is true.

Explanation

The length of the day at equator is always 12 hrs as the angle of incidence of the Sun’s rays at the equator is constant.

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Q 4. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the descending order of the latitudinal zones of ocean salinity? Use the codes given below to select the correct answer:
1. 10°N — 15°N
2. 15°N — 40°N
3. 40°N — 50°N
4. 50°N — 70°N

A

1,3, 2,4

2, 1,3,4

C

2, 1,4,3

D

1,4, 3, 2

Explanation

(15°N - 40° N > 10° N - 15° N > 40° N - 50° N > 50° N - 70° N)

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Q 5. Which one of the following characteristics of the earth is not explained by the tetrahedral hypothesis?

Drifting of the continents.

B

Location of chain of Fold Mountains around the Pacific Ocean.

C

Antipodal arrangement of the continents and oceans.

D

Triangular shape of the continents and the oceans.

Explanation

The Tetrahedral hypothesis is an obsolete scientific theory attempting to explain the arrangement of the Earth’s continents and oceans by referring to the geometry of a tetrahedron. Although it was a historically interesting theory in the late 19th and early 20th century, it was superseded by the concepts of continental drift and modern plate tectonics.

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Q 6. Consider the following statements:
1. Either of the two belts over the oceans at about 30° to 35° N and S latitudes is known as Horse Latitude.
2. Horse latitude are low pressure belts.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

1 only

B

2 only

C

Both 1 and 2

D

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

Horse latitudes or subtropical highs are subtropical latitudes between 30 and 35 degrees both north and south where Earth’s atmosphere is dominated by the subtropical high, an area of high pressure, which suppresses precipitation and cloud formation, and has variable winds mixed with calm winds.

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Q 7. Match list I with list II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the list.

A - (iii), B - (i), C - (iv), D - (ii)

B

A - (ii), B - (iii), C - (iv), D - (i)

C

A - (iii), B - (ii), C - (i), D - (iv)

D

A-(iii), B -(i),C-(ii), D-(iv)

Explanation

The Equator is the parallel line located at 0° latitude. It is identified as the latitude that falls at the point that is equidistant from the North Pole and the South Pole. The Equator’s covers a distance on the Earth’s surface approximately 24,901 miles long.
The standard meridian of India is 88.5° E of the Greenwich Meridian. This meridian passes through the city of Allahabad. It runs through the centre of the country.
The Tropic of Capricorn, or Southern tropic, is one of the five major circles of latitude of a map of the Earth. It is 23° 26' 22" south of the Equator. It marks the most southerly latitude at which the sun can appear directly overhead.
The Arctic Circle is the parallel of latitude that runs 66° 33' 39” (or 66.56083°) north of the Equator and is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. Everything north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south of this circle is the Northern Temperate Zone.

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Q 8. Assertion(A) : Mercator’s projection has been used for making navigational charts.
Reason (R) : Loxodromes are shown as straight lines on this.

Both A and R are true and R Explains A

B

Both A and R are true but R does not explain A

C

A is true but R is false

D

A is false but R is true

Explanation

Mercator’s projection is used for marine navigation due to the fact that it shows loxodromes as straight lines.

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Q 9. The equator passes through

A

Cameroon

B

Costa Rica

Kenya

D

Venezuela

Explanation

The Equator passes through Kenya.

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Q 10. 90° E Ridge lies in

A

Atlantic ocean

Indian ocean

C

Pacific ocean

D

Mediterranean ocean

Explanation

90°E Ridge lies in Indian Ocean. The Ninety East Ridge (also rendered as Ninetyeast Ridge, 90E Ridge or 90°E Ridge) is a linear, age-progressive seamount chain in the Indian Ocean and is named for its near-parallel strike along the 90th meridian, lt is approximately 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) in length and can be traced topographically from the Bay of Bengal southward towards the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR), though the feature continues to the north where it is hidden beneath the sediments of the Bengal Fan. The ridge extends between latitudes 33°S and 17°N and has an average width of 200 km.

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Q 11. The inter section point of the Prime Meridian and the Equator lies in

Atlantic ocean

B

Ghana

C

Morocco

D

Pacific ocean

Explanation

The Intersection point of the Prime Meridian and the Equator lies in Gulf of Guinea which is located in the middle of the Atlantic Ociean.

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Q 12. Which river of Africa crosses the Tropic of Capricorn twice?

A

Congo

Limpopo

C

Niger

D

Zambezi

Explanation

Limpopo, River of Africa crosses the tropic of Capricorn twice. The Limpopo River rises in central southern Africa, and flows generally eastwards to the Indian Ocean.

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Q 13. What are the date/dates on which day and night are equal in both the hemispheres?

A

June 21

B

December 22

March 21 and September 23

D

June 21 and December 22

Explanation

It happens during Vernal Equinox (21st March) and Autumn Equinox (September 23).

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Q 14. Isopleth depicting the same mean value of sun shine is termed

A

Isonephs

B

Isorums

Isohels

D

Isohyets

Explanation

Isohels represent points receiving equal amounts of Sunshine.

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Q 15. Which of the following two countries are separated by the 49th parallel?

A

France and Germany

USA and Canada

C

North Korea and South Korea

D

Mexico and USA

Explanation

It is the boundary between USA and Canada.

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Q 16. International Date line is

A

equator

B

0° longitude

C

90° east longitude

180° east-west longitude

Explanation

The international data line is located about 180°E (or 180° W) of Greenwich.

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Q 17. Which continent of the world does not have a desert?

A

Australia

Europe

C

Asia

D

North America

Explanation

Europe does not have a desert. It has Accona desert- a semi-desert in central Italy.

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Q 18. Asia has large areas of inland drainage. Why is it so?

Rainfall is seasonal and scanty

B

There is a number of intermontane plateaus

C

River channels are obstructed by lava flows

D

It is a very large continent

Explanation

Asia has large areas of inland drainage because rainfall is seasonal and scanty.

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Q 19. Name the Continents that form a mirror image of each other

A

North America and South America

B

Asia and Africa

Africa and South America

D

Europe and Asia

Explanation

Africa and South America form a mirror image of each other.

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Q 20. Assertion (A) : Maps that are usually referring various attributes information are called complex Thematic maps.
Reason (R) : Complex Thematic Maps are used to show locations of earth’s different features and activities.

A

Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)

C

(A) is true, but (R) is false

D

(A) is false, but (R) is true

Explanation

Maps that are usually referring various attributes information are called complex thematic maps and are used to show locations of earth’s different features and activities.

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Q 21. The equatorial circumference of the Earth is nearly—

A

31,000 km

40,000 km

C

50,000 km

D

64,000 km

Explanation

The equitorial Circumference of the Earth is nearly 40,000 km.

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Q 22. Which of the following statements is incorrect about ‘great circle’?

A

Equator is great circle

B

A ship can save fuel and time by following the great circle are between two points

Only one great circle can be drawn on a sphere

D

A great circle results when a plane passes through the centre of a sphere

Explanation

There can be more than one great circle which can be drawn on a sphere.

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Q 23. Which one of the following is a landlocked country?

A

Belgium

Hungary

C

Rumania

D

Ukraine

Explanation

Hungary is one of the landlocked countries in the world. This Central European nation is surrounded by Slovakia, Slovenia. Romania. Serbia, Croatia and Ukraine.

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Q 24. Which one among the following is the largest island in area?

Borneo

B

Great Britain

C

Madagascar

D

Sumatra

Explanation

Borneo-748,168 Sq. Km. is one of the largest islands in the world. Areas of other islands are,
Madagascar-587,041 Sq. Km
Sumatra- 443,066 Sq. Km
Great Britain- 209,331 Sq. Km

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Q 25. Which of the following countries does not form border with the Caspian Sea?

A

Azerbaijan

B

lran

Iraq

D

Kazakhstan

Explanation

The countries which forms border with Caspian Sea includes Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan etc. Iraq does not form border with Caspian Sea.