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Explore popular questions from Environmental Management for UPSC. This collection covers Environmental Management previous year UPSC questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

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Q 1. Which of the following can be achieved through environment management?

A

Intra-generation Equity

B

Environmental Governance

C

Conservation of critical environment resources

all the above

Explanation

Environment management becomes important to conserve critical ecosystems and resources, and invaluable natural and made-made heritage, which are essential for life support, livelihoods, economic growth and human well being. To ensure equitable access to environmental resources and quality for all sections of society, and in particular to support poor communities. To apply the principles of good governance with respect to transparency, rationality, accountability, and reduction in time and costs, to the management and regulation of use of environmental resources.

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Q 2. Which of the following implemented the National Rural Drinking Water Programme?

Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation

B

Department of Drinking Water Supply

C

National Water Development Agency

D

None of the above.

Explanation

The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation has taken launched the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP). NRDWP provides grants for construction of rural water supply schemes with special attention on water-stressed and water quality affected areas, rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge measures. It promotes conjunctive use of surface, groundwater and roof water rainwater harvesting and actively supports convergence with other development programmes such as the MNREGS. National Water Development Agency conducts surveys aixl investigations in respect of Peninsular Component of National Perspective for Water Resources Development.

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Q 3. Amrit, a low-cost arsenic filter using nano-filtration technology, has been developed by

Indian Institute of Technology-Madras

B

Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi

C

Indian Institute of Science-Bangalore

D

Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay

Explanation

Scientists at the Indian Institute of Technology-Madras (IIT-M) have developed Amrit, a low-cost arsenic filter using nano-filtration technology. This technology can be used for removing arsenic from drinking water. Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, Indian Institute of Science-Bangalore and Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay have not designed any such technology on purifying water.

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Q 4. Which of the following activities has been banned in Ganga?

A

boating

B

fishing

camping

D

both a and b

Explanation

The National Green Tribunal has banned camping activity in the entire belt of Kaudiyala to Rishikesh on the banks of river Ganga in Uttarakhand. Rafting does not cause any serious pollution river or environment. NGT prohibits the use of any plastic items in the entire belt and restricts using mechanised riverbed mining in the Ganga till Haridwar.

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Q 5. Thermal power plants in India have been warned for releasing which of the following pollutants?

A

Sulphur Dioxide

B

Nitrogen Oxide

C

Mercury

all the above

Explanation

Thermal power plants in India release Sulphur Dioxide. Nitrogen Oxide and Mercury as pollutants. These substances pollutes air and water causing health problems for humans and other organisms. Sulphur Dioxide cause acid rain which corrodes monuments and other buildings. Nitrogen Oxide is toxic to many organisms. Mercury when consumed causes disease called Minamata.

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Q 6. Recent Supreme Court ruling banned which of the following type of vehicles?

A

BS-IV vehicles

BS-III vehicles

C

diesel vehicles

D

petrol vehicles

Explanation

The Supreme Court ruled that health of citizens was more important than commercial interests of auto makers as it banned the sale and registration of Bharat Stage (BS)-III emission norm-compliant vehicles from April I. Bharat Stage or BS norms are standards for vehicular emissions. They lay down the permissible levels of pollutants that come out of the exhaust pipes of motor vehicles. The aim is to check air pollution and emissions that lead to global warming. India is set to enforce a new generation of vehicular pollution norms on April 1 called BS IV. Only BS IV compliant vehicles can be manufactured.

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Q 7. How much green cess has been proposed by the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) for the National Capital Region (NCR) on diesel vehicles?

20-22%

B

15-20%

C

10-15%.

D

20-25%.

Explanation

Cess on diesel vehicles will lead to the reduction in air pollution. The Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) for the National Capital Region (NCR) has recommended to levy a green cess of 20-22% on diesel vehicles. EPCA recommended a cess of 20% on the cost of vehicles with engines that are smaller than 1,500cc in size, and 22% on those over 1,500cc. The main reason behind EPCA’s recommendation is to remove the existing incentive for buying diesel vehicles. Removing the fuel price differential, through the imposition of ECC (environment compensation charge) will be a step in removing the incentive for diesel vehicles. This is needed to reduce public health risk as diesel emissions are among the more harmful pollutants.

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Q 8. Which of the following apps has been launched for monitoring of pollution levels in industrial regions.

Drishti

B

Watawaran

C

Shristi

D

None of the above

Explanation

The government of Rajasthan has launched Drishti app for monitoring pollution levels in industrial regions. The app will help in monitoring air pollutants and assist in creating data on air pollution for future reference. There is no app by name Watawaran. Shristi and Shristi.

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Q 9. Which of the following contribute to soil management?

A

organic farming

B

bio-fertilizcr

C

intensive farming

both a and b

Explanation

Organic farming and bio-fertilizer increase soil fertility and help managing soil pollution. Organic farming involves crop and livestock production under limited use of pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and growth hormones. Bio fertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to plant surfaces, colonize the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and improves growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant.

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Q 10. Recently, the use of which of the following has been proposed to monitor tigers?

A

helicopters

B

infrared camera

drones

D

radio signal

Explanation

Conservation drones are being used to monitor tiger reserves. Besides monitoring of tiger population in the reserves, the unmanned aircraft would collect and transmit visual data on animal movements, poaching activities and instances of forest fire from inaccessible forest terrains on a real-time basis. The drones could be used for the management of habitats and species.

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Q 11. Problem of solid waste can be reduced through

A

Timber use

B

lesser pollution

C

population control

recycling

Explanation

Problem of solid waste can be reduced through recycling. Recycling reduces the deposition of solid wastes in nature. Timber use will result in the reduction in the number of plants, leading to air pollution. Population control is not the effective measure to control solid waste disposal problem.

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Q 12. Which of the following are natural filters which are used for treatment of sewage waste?

A

Sand

B

Gravel

C

Plants

All the above

Explanation

India and the European Union collaborated to find a cost-effective technology for treatment of sewage waste for irrigation, especially in rural areas, using natural filters like sand and plants. The technology involves collecting the sewage waste before it reaches the water bodies and then treat it using natural filters like sand, gravel, pebbles and plants to remove the impurities. Under the project, many wetland plant species, such as Canna indica, lemon grass, napier, para grass, typha. water hyacinth, water lettuce and a weed species Agaratum conyzoides, have been identified for purifying the wastewater.

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Q 13. What is the aim of 'Water4crops’ project?

A

Use less water for crops

B

More irrigation facilities

Bio-treated wastewater reuse

D

Drip and Sprinkle Irrigation

Explanation

The 'Water4crops’ is one of the technology initiatives between India and European Union. The project also proved that the construction of wetland reduces the amount of pollutants, chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater by 30-92 per cent.

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Q 14. Industrial pollution can be reduced through

A

eco-labeling

B

Pollution charge

C

government subsidy

both b and c

Explanation

Charge system will levy a fee or tax on the amount of pollution a firm or source generates. It is important for the firm to reduce emissions. Subsidies can provide incentive to address environmental problems. However, it has been reported that the subsidies encourage economically inefficient and environmentally unsound practices. Eco-labeling is the practice of supplying information on the environmental characteristics of a product or service to the general public.

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Q 15. Ganga pollution can be controlled through

sewage treatment

B

rafting

C

camping

D

dams

Explanation

Ganga pollution can be controlled through the treatment sewage before releasing them into the Ganga. Rafting and camping increase water pollution and causes land degradation along Ganga. Construction of dams pose a threat to the dolphin population.

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Q 16. Inland water quality-monitoring network is operated under

A

Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS)

B

Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources System (MINARS)

C

Yamuna Action Plan (YAP)

all the above

Explanation

Inland water quality-monitoring netw ork is operated under a three-tier programme. Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources System (MINARS) and Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). Water samples are being analysed for 28 parameters consisting of 9 core parameters, 19 other physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters apart from the field observations. Biomonitoring is also carried out on specific locations. In view' of limited resources, limited numbers of organic pollution related parameters are monitored for micro pollutants (toxic metals and POPs).

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Q 17. What percent of total profitability need to be spent by companies in India towards environmental corporate social responsibility?

A

5%

B

1%

C

3%

2%

Explanation

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) represents the policies, practices and initiatives a company commits to in order to govern themselves with honesty and transparency and have a positive impact on social and environmental wellbeing. The Indian government has been trying to make it mandatory for companies to spend at least 2 percent of net profitability on CSR.

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Q 18. Which of the following Indian banks has invested in the Carbon Disclosure Project?

State Bank of India

B

HDFC Bank

C

Punjab National Bank

D

Central Bank

Explanation

State Bank of India has invested in the Carbon Disclosure Project, which is an organisation based in the United Kingdom which works with shareholders and corporations to disclose the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of major corporations.

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Q 19. Which of the following is a pollution monitoring app?

RajVayu

B

KendraVayu

C

ShudhVayu

D

both b and c

Explanation

The government of Rajasthan has introduced mobile application RajVayu for sharing information about air quality index. The app was launched on the World Environment Day (5th June). With this. Rajasthan becomes first state in country to launch such app for sharing information about air quality index of cities. There is no app by name KendraVayu and ShudhVayu.

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Q 20. Amended Form 22 of pollution control applies to

A

CNG vehicles

B

electric vehicles

C

diesel vehicles

all the above

Explanation

Amended Form 22 makes it mandatory for all automobile manufacturers to provide emission and noise pollution details for every vehicle including makers of electric rickshaws and electric carts. It will apply to all vehicles including petrol, CNG. LPG, electric, diesel and hybrid. Automobile manufacturers need to specify the levels of each pollutant like carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, non-methane HC. NOx, HC + NOx, PM etc. for petrol and diesel vehicles.

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Q 21. Which type of pollution can be controlled by super critical and ultra-super critical (USC) technologies?

A

water pollution

CO2 emission

C

radioactive emission

D

None

Explanation

Super critical and ultra-super critical (USC) technologies are capable of substantially reducing CO2 emissions and virtually eliminate PM emissions. It requires less coal per megawatt-hour, leading to lower emissions (including carbon dioxide), higher efficiency and lower fuel costs per megawatt. These technologies are not used in nuclear power stations.

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Q 22. Which of the following plant is considered highly inflammable and responsible for forest fire?

Chir pine

B

oak

C

fir

D

teak

Explanation

Chir pine needles, which are highly inflammable due to its high resin content, are main factor in occurring and spreading of forest fires. Incidents of fire in broad leaves forests were found to be minimal. Oak , fir and teak are comparatively less inflammable.

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Q 23. Read the following statements regarding the launch of Roll-on Roll-Off (RORO) Service
I. It was launched in Delhi region
II. It aims at controlling water pollution
III. It states that heavy commercial vehicles passing through Delhi will he loaded on flat railway wagons at railway terminals.
Choose the correct option.

A

i and ii

B

ii and iii

C

i, ii and iii

i and iii

Explanation

This service was launched in the National Capital and included a multi-modal transportation model aimed at reducing Delhi’s air pollution. The RO-RO have a direct impact on its air ambient quality and the capital would breathe clean air. According to plans, heavy commercial vehicles passing through Delhi will be loaded on flat railway wagons at railway terminals outside the capital and will get unloaded at the other end of the city. RO-RO service aims to reduce carbon emission and congestion on the roads of the NCR as about 66,000 diesel (rucks pass through Delhi and its adjoining areas in a day.

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Q 24. Read the following statements regarding the Central Pollution Control Board
I. It is implementing the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 to restore air quality
II. It is a statutory organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)
III. It was established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1974.
Choose the correct option.

i, ii and iii

B

i and iii

C

ii and iii

D

i and iii

Explanation

The government agency is implementing the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) .Act 1981 to restore air quality. It is a statutory organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC). It was established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act. 1974. CPCB runs nation-wide programs of ambient air quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The network consists of 621 operating stations covering 262 cities/towns in 29 states and 5 Union Territories of the country.

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Q 25. Read the following statements regarding the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP)
I. Four air pollutants viz. Sulphur Dioxide(SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2
2. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM/ PM 10) have been identified
II. The monitoring of meteorological parameters such as wind speed and wind direction, relative humidity (RH) and temperature were also integrated with the monitoring of air quality.
Choose the correct option.

A

only i

both i and ii

C

only ii

D

None

Explanation

NAMP has identified four air pollutants. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM/ PM 10, for regular monitoring at all the locations. The monitoring of meteorological parameters such as wind speed and wind direction, relative humidity (RH) and temperature were also integrated with the monitoring of air quality. These parameters affects the presence of air pollutants in the environment.