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Analytical and Logical Reasoning

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Q 1. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Health is the foundation of well-being, virtue, prosperity, wealth, happiness and salvation.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Happiness results in health and well-being.
II. People desire to be happy, prosperous and virtuous.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

I is not implicit. The statement puts it the other way round. That is, health results in happiness. It can be inferred that people desire to be happy, prosperous and virtuous from II. Hence it is implicit.

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Q 2. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
The private bus services in the city has virtually collapsed because of the ongoing strike of its employees.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Going on strikes has become the right of every employee.
II. People no more require the services of private bus operators.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Since both the assumptions do not follow from the given statement, so neither I nor II is implicit.

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Q 3. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Even with the increase in the number of sugar factories in India, we still continue to import sugar.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The consumption of sugar per capita has increased in India.
II. Many of the factories are not in a position to produce sugar to their fullest capacity.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Clearly, the need to import sugar could be either due to increase in consumption or the inefficiency of the factories to produce sugar to their fullest capacity. So, either I or II is implicit.

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Q 4. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
The coffee powder of company X is quite better in taste than the much advertised coffee of company Y.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

I is not implicit as the company with a bad product might be advertising more because people are not aware of it. According to the statement, the product of company Y is more known because of more advertisement. So, II is implicit.

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Q 5. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. There are unemployed youth in India who need monetary support.
II. The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Assumption 1 is implicit for the given statement. It is true that there are unemployed youths in India who need monetary support, but it may not be true that the government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all these unemployed youths.

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Q 6. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Lack of stimulation in the first four-five years of life can have adverse consequences.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. A great part of the development of observed intelligence occurs in the earliest years of life.
II. 50 percent of the measurable intelligence at the age of 17 is already predictable by the age of four.

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Given statement indicates that the development of intelligence is more suitable in the earliest years of life so I is implicit. II is not correlated with the statement. So it is not implicit.

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Q 7. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Taken this ‘oven’ home and you can prepare very tasty dishes which you were unable to prepare earlier- An advertisement of X brand oven.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The user knows the procedure recipe of tasty dishes but does not have the proper oven to cook.
II. Only ‘X’ brand oven can cook very tasty dishes.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

From the statement we cannot assume that the user knows the procedure of recipe for tasty dishes. So 1 is not implicit. II is not implicit because ‘X’ brand oven can cook very tasty and not only ‘X’ brand.

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Q 8. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
The X-Airlines has temporarily suspended Hights to a few destinations for the next four days due to the strike call given by the Pilots’ Association.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The airlines may be able to restore all the flights after four days.
II. The Pilots’ Association may withdraw the strike call within four days.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

if either l or II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Why has the suspension of flights been made for a limited period of four days? It must have been assumed by the authorities of X-Airlines that the crisis may be over after this limited period. It is also possible that the Pilots’ Association may withdraw the strike call within four days.

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Q 9. {tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
The party president has directed that no member of the party will give press briefing or interviews to government and private T.V. channels about the discussion in the scheduled meeting of the party.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Party members will observe this directive of the president.
II. The general public will not come to know about the happenings in the scheduled meeting of the party.

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either l or II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Clearly, the party president lays down the policies for its members. So, I is implicit. From the statement we cannot certainly assume that the general public will not come to know about the happening in the scheduled meeting of the party.

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Q 10. {tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
In view of the recent spurt in sugar prices in the open market, the government has asked the dealers to release a vast quantity of imported sugar in the open market.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The dealers will follow the government directive.
II. The sugar prices will come down.
III. The price of indigenous sugar will remain unchanged.

Only I and II are implicit.

B

Only II and III are implicit.

C

Only I and III are implicit.

D

None is implicit.

Explanation

The government’s decision is clearly a measure to increase supply and control rates. So, both I and II are implicit, while III is not.

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Q 11. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Artificial honey can be prepared.
II. People do not mind paying more for pure and natural honey.
III. No other company supplies pure honey.

Only I is implicit

B

Only I and II are implicit

C

Only I and III are implicit

D

All are implicit

Explanation

From the statement it is obvious that people give preference to pure and natural honey, hence the company X is mentioning it in the advertisement.

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Q 12. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
“Fly with us and experience the pleasure of flying”-an advertisement by an airline.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
II. People generally may prefer an enjoyable flight.
III. Other airlines may not be offering the same facilities.

A

None is implicit

B

Only 1 is implicit

C

Only II is implicit

None of these

Explanation

Both I and II are implicit. If people did not want an enjoyable flight, there would have no meaning of this kind of advertisement. Advertisement is given for attraction of people.

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Q 13. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
“Smoking is injurious to health”-a warning printed on the cigarette packets.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. People read printed matter on the cigarette packet.
II. People take careful note of warning.
III. Non-smoking promotes health.

A

Only I is implicit

Only I and II are implicit

C

Only II is implicit

D

All are implicit

Explanation

People usually read the printed matter on the cigarette packet and they take careful note of the warning, hence the warning is printed on the packet.

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Q 14. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
It is not always true that adoption of sophisticated technology increases production efficiency.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Adoption of sophisticated technology is not difficult thing to achieve.
II. Production efficiency can be achieved by getting rid of sophisticated technology

A

if the assumption I is implicit.

B

if the assumption II is implicit.

if neither I nor II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Both the assumptions are not valid. If sophisticated technology can give increase production efficiency then what is the meaning of statement- ‘.......not always...’

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Q 15. {tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
A Harvard University study raises fresh concerns about the anti-allergy drug Crocin which is prescribed to patients following antibiotic medication. Compared with the other two anti-allergy drugs (one of the three must be prescribed), this study shows that Crocin significantly raised the risk of adverse side effects following antibiotic medication. {tex}\mathrm{Assumptions}:{/tex}
I. There is no risk if one of the two other anti-allergy drugs are administered.
II. It is necessary to take an anti-allergy drug after antibiotic medication.

A

if the assumption I is implicit.

if the assumption II is implicit.

C

if neither I nor II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Since one of the three must be prescribed, Assumption II must be implied.

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Q 16. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
The parents of majority of the students of K.N. University have decided to withdraw their wards from the institute to protest against the sharp fee hike.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. It is likely that such attempts will make the K.N. University authority to rethink the sharp fee hike.
II. The institution will be closed after 10th of June.

if the assumption I is implicit.

B

if the assumption II is implicit.

C

if neither I nor II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Assumption I is implicit while the second one is irrelevant to the statement.

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Q 17. {tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
Children whose mothers eat more Carrot during pregnancy have higher motor skills and more athletic capability than those whose mothers cat little, according to a new British study.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions:}{/tex}
I. Those whose mothers don’t eat carrot have zero motor skills and athletic capability.
II. It is essential for pregnant women to have carrot in order to have children with higher motor skills and more athletic capability.

A

if the assumption I is implicit.

if the assumption II is implicit.

C

if neither I nor II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

We cannot assume that those children whose mothers do not eat carrots have zero motor skills and athletic capability. Hence, assumption I is invalid. However, assumption II is valid.

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Q 18. Each of the following questions consists of a statement followed by two arguments 1 and II. Give answer:

Statement:
Should there be a restriction on the migration of people from one state to another in India?
Arguments:
No. Any Indian citizen has a basic right to stay at any place oftheir choice and hence they cannot be stopped.
I Yes. This is the way to effect an equitable distribution of resources across the states in India.

A

If only argument I is strong;

B

If only argument II is strong;

C

If neither I nor II is strong;

If both I and II are strong

Explanation

I is strong on the basis of Constitutional right. II is also strong because it advocates the way to effect an equitable distribution of resources across the states oflndia.

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Q 19. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} {/tex}:
Should government stop spending huge amounts of money on international sports?
{tex}\mathrm{Arguments} {/tex}:
I. Yes. This money can be utilised for upliftment of the poor.
II. No. Sportspersons will be frustrated and will not get international exposure.

A

If only argument I is strong

If only argument II is strong

C

If neither I nor II is strong

D

If both I and II are strong

Explanation

Clearly, spending money on sports cannot be avoided merely because it can be spend on socio-economic problems. So, argument I does not hold. Also, if the expenses on sports are curtailed, the sportsperson should face lack of facilities and training and our country will lag behind in international sports competitions.

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Q 20. Statement:
Should Government freeze pay-scales and salary of all private and public sectors and its own employees to contain inflation?
Arguments:
Yes. All over the world this is considered as a sure way to contain inflation.
I No. The government should control market forces to keep check on the prices.

If only argument I is strong;

B

If only argument II is strong;

C

If neither I nor II is strong;

D

If both I and II are strong

Explanation

Since lndia is a part of world, whatever is true all over the world should be true for India also. Hence I is strong. But II is weak because it provides an alternative instead of going into the reason.

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Q 21. Statement:
Should the government levy tax on agricultural income also?
Arguments:
I. Yes. That is the only way to fill government coffers.
II. No. Eighty per cent of our population live in rural areas.

A

If only argument I is strong;

B

If only argument II is strong;

If neither I nor II is strong;

D

If both I and II are strong

Explanation

Clearly, earning revenue is not the only criteria on which tax is imposed and also, there are several other ways to add to government treasury. So, argument I is vague. Moreover, a tax cannot be curtailed just because a greater part of the population has to pay it. So, argument II is also not valid.

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Q 22. {tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Should there be capital punishment for those who are found guilty of rape charges?
{tex}\mathrm{Arguments} : {/tex}
I. Yes. This is the only way to eliminate such atrocities on women.
II. No. This will lead to more violence as culprits may even kill the rape victims.

A

If only argument I is strong

If only argument II is strong

C

If neither I nor II is strong

D

If both I and II are strong

Explanation

I is weak because it is not true. Second is correct on logical thinking.

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Q 23. Statement:
Should there be a complete ban on use of pesticides in agricultural sector?
Arguments:
I. Yes. This is the only way to save the underground water from getting polluted with such dangerous chemicals.
II. No. This will adversely affect the agricultural production.

A

If only argument I is strong;

If only argument II is strong;

C

If neither I nor II is strong;

D

If both I and II are strong

Explanation

Argument I is not correct because of the word �only� used in the argument. Hence, argument I is not strong. Argument II is strong because adverse impact on agriculture will debilitate the backbone of the economy.

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Q 24. Statement:
Should Central Government open well-equipped hospitals for every subdivision of every district?
Arguments:
I. Yes, Health and well-being of every citizen is the primary responsibility of the government.
II. No, it is not possible, society must come forward to help the government.

If only argument I is strong;

B

If only argument II is strong;

C

If neither I nor II is strong;

D

If both I and II are strong

Explanation

Providing infrastructure for good health of the citizens is the primary responsibility of a modern state. Hence I is strong.

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Q 25. Each of the following questions consists of a statement followed by two arguments I and II. Give answer:

Statement: Should there be only one rate of interest for term deposits of varying durations in banks?
Arguments:
I. No. People will refrain from keeping money for longer duration resulting into reduction of liquidity level of banks.
II. Yes. This will be most simple for the common people and they may beencouraged to keep more money in banks.

If only argument I is strong;

B

If only argument II is strong;

C

If neither I nor II is strong;

D

If both I and II are strong

Explanation

I is strong because higher rates attract people to deposit money for longer duration. If there be only one rate of interest for term deposits for varying durations, this will adversely affect deposit of money in bank for longer duration and also the liquidity level of banks. Il is not strong because only one rate of interest does not imply an encouragement for more savings.