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UPSC > Analytical and Logical Reasoning

Explore popular questions from Analytical and Logical Reasoning for UPSC. This collection covers Analytical and Logical Reasoning previous year UPSC questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

Q 1.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
The civic authority appealed to the people for reduction in usage of water as there may be an acute shortage during the coming weeks.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. There will be no rain in recent future.
II. The people are ready to follow the advice of the civic authority.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Clearly, 1 is not directly related to the issue in the given statement and so it is not implicit. The civic authority makes an appeal to the people with the hope that it would surely be attended by the people. So, II is implicit.

Q 2.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
If the city bus which runs between Cheka Naka and Vande Park is extended to Shramnagar, it will be convenient. — Appeal of residents of Cheka Naka to the city bus company.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The convenience of the city bus company is much more important than the needs of the consumers.
II. The city bus company is indifferent to the aspirations of the residents of Shramnagar.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

We are in no position to pass any judgement at present. We may assume these only if the appeal is rejected. So, neither I nor II is implicit.

Q 3.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
All the employees are notified that the organisation will provide transport facilities at half the cost from the nearby railway station to the office except those who have been provided with travelling allowance.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Most of the employees will travel by the office transport.
II. Those who are provided with travelling allowance will not read such notice.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

It is not clear, how many employees are getting travelling allowance, so I is not implicit. The statement barring employees getting travelling allowance indicate that most people will read the notice.

Q 4.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. There are unemployed youth in India who need monetary support.
II. The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Assumption 1 is implicit for the given statement. It is true that there are unemployed youths in India who need monetary support, but it may not be true that the government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all these unemployed youths.

Q 5.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Retired persons should not be appointed for executive posts in other organizations.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Retired persons may lack the zeal and commitment to carryout executive’s work.
II. Retired persons do not take interest in the work and welfare of the new organizations.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Both of the given assumptions are not followed by the given statements.

Q 6.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Government aided schools should have uniformity in charging various fees.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The government’s subsidy comes from the money collected by way of taxes from people.
II. The government while giving subsidy may have stipulated certain uniform conditions regarding fees.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Assumption II is implicit for the given statement.

Q 7.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
It is felt that when the airline is facing stiff competition coupled with a precarious financial position, the top level posts should be kept open for outside professionals than internal candidates.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Internal candidates aspire only getting promotions, without much contribution.
II. Experienced professionals are more likely to handle the problems of the airline.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

1 is not implicit. There is no hint regarding internal candidates aspire only getting promotion, without much contribution. II can be assumed because outside professionals will be more experienced than internal candidates.

Q 8.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Lack of stimulation in the first four-five years of life can have adverse consequences.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. A great part of the development of observed intelligence occurs in the earliest years of life.
II. 50 percent of the measurable intelligence at the age of 17 is already predictable by the age of four.

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Given statement indicates that the development of intelligence is more suitable in the earliest years of life so I is implicit. II is not correlated with the statement. So it is not implicit.

Q 9.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
Taken this ‘oven’ home and you can prepare very tasty dishes which you were unable to prepare earlier- An advertisement of X brand oven.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The user knows the procedure recipe of tasty dishes but does not have the proper oven to cook.
II. Only ‘X’ brand oven can cook very tasty dishes.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

From the statement we cannot assume that the user knows the procedure of recipe for tasty dishes. So 1 is not implicit. II is not implicit because ‘X’ brand oven can cook very tasty and not only ‘X’ brand.

Q 10.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
A notice : “Use of cell phones and pagers is not allowed inside the auditorium. Please switch off such devices while you are inside the auditorium”.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. All those who have such devices will switch them off before they take their seat in the auditorium.
II. Generally people do not bring such devices when they come to attend functions in the auditorium.

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Assumption II is not implicit. If people do not bring such devices, then why did they need this notice? Meaning of any notice is that the people will obey it. Hence only 1 is implicit.

Q 11.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
An advertisement: “Fly X airways whenever you decide to go places. Our fares are lesser than train fares.”
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. People prefer to travel by air when the fares are reasonable.
II. The fares of other airlines are costlier than those of X airways.

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either I or II is implicit.

D

if neither I nor II is implicit.

Explanation

Definitely, people prefer to travel by air when the fares are reasonable. It is clear from the advertisement— 'our fares are lesser than train fares.' Assumption II is not implicit because fares of other airways are not given.

Q 12.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
The state government ‘X’ is committed to restrict smoke levels on the roads of the metropolis as per the desired parameters.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. It is possible to determine the smoke levels.
II. A committed government can carry forward welfare measures for its people.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either l or II is implicit.

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

The govt, has promised to bring down the smoke level because it is possible to determine the level. Hence I is implicit. II is implicit because containing pollution is also a welfare measure.

Q 13.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
The Government of India has decided to start a track II dialogue with its neighbour to reduce tension in the area.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The neighbouring country may agree to participate in the track II dialogue.
II. The people involved in track II dialogue may be able to persuade their respective Governments.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either l or II is implicit.

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

A decision to start any sort of dialogue with one’s neighbour assumes that the neighbour will also participate in it. Hence 1 is implicit. II is implicit because track II dialogue can Ik meaningful only when the respective Government agrees to abide by it.

Q 14.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
The X-Airlines has temporarily suspended Hights to a few destinations for the next four days due to the strike call given by the Pilots’ Association.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The airlines may be able to restore all the flights after four days.
II. The Pilots’ Association may withdraw the strike call within four days.

A

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

if either l or II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Why has the suspension of flights been made for a limited period of four days? It must have been assumed by the authorities of X-Airlines that the crisis may be over after this limited period. It is also possible that the Pilots’ Association may withdraw the strike call within four days.

Q 15.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
The party president has directed that no member of the party will give press briefing or interviews to government and private T.V. channels about the discussion in the scheduled meeting of the party.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Party members will observe this directive of the president.
II. The general public will not come to know about the happenings in the scheduled meeting of the party.

if only assumption I is implicit.

B

if only assumption II is implicit.

C

if either l or II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Clearly, the party president lays down the policies for its members. So, I is implicit. From the statement we cannot certainly assume that the general public will not come to know about the happening in the scheduled meeting of the party.

Q 16.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
“We have the distinction of being the only company in India as well as the second in the world to have won an ISO-9002 quality certification in our line of business”-Statement of company X’s Chairman.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. There were not many companies in the line of business of Company ‘X’.
II. Getting ISO-9002 in the line of business of Company ‘X’ is not easy.
III. The company ‘X’ desires to expand its business.

A

Only I is implicit.

B

Only II is implicit.

C

Only III is implicit.

Only II and III are implicit.

Explanation

Since it is hard to get ISO-9002 certification, he is trying to highlight the company’s achievement and by doing that expansion of his business is in his mind.

Q 17.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
India’s economic growth has come at a terrible price of increased industrial and vehicular pollution.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Pollution is a part of industrial society.
II. Indian economic growth is based on only industrial growth.
III. A country desires economic growth with manageable side-effects.

A

Only I is implicit.

B

Only II is implicit.

Only III is implicit.

D

Only I and III are implicit.

Explanation

I is implicit in the phrase “industrial... pollution.” II is not implicit because of the word ‘only’. Ill is implicit from the concern shown at the “terrible price”.

Q 18.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
In view of the recent spurt in sugar prices in the open market, the government has asked the dealers to release a vast quantity of imported sugar in the open market.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. The dealers will follow the government directive.
II. The sugar prices will come down.
III. The price of indigenous sugar will remain unchanged.

Only I and II are implicit.

B

Only II and III are implicit.

C

Only I and III are implicit.

D

None is implicit.

Explanation

The government’s decision is clearly a measure to increase supply and control rates. So, both I and II are implicit, while III is not.

Q 19.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
“Buy pure and natural honey of company X”-an advertisement in a newspaper.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Artificial honey can be prepared.
II. People do not mind paying more for pure and natural honey.
III. No other company supplies pure honey.

Only 1 is implicit

B

Only I and II are implicit

C

Only I and III are implicit

D

All are implicit

Explanation

From the statement it is obvious that people give preference to pure and natural honey, hence the company X is mentioning it in the advertisement.

Q 20.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
“Fly with us and experience the pleasure of flying”-an advertisement by an airline.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. More passengers may be attracted to travel by airline after reading the advertisement.
II. People generally may prefer an enjoyable flight.
III. Other airlines may not be offering the same facilities.

A

None is implicit

B

Only 1 is implicit

C

Only II is implicit

None of these

Explanation

Both I and II are implicit. If people did not want an enjoyable flight, there would have no meaning of this kind of advertisement. Advertisement is given for attraction of people.

Q 21.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
“We do not want you to see our product in newspaper, visit our shop to get a full view”- an advertisement.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. People generally decide to purchase any product after seeing the name in the advertisement.
II. Uncommon appeal may attract the customers.
III. People may come to sec the product.

A

None is implicit

B

Only I and II are implicit

Only I and III are implicit

D

All are implicit

Explanation

Uncommon way of advertisement arouses interest in the customers, hence people may visit the shop out of curiosity.

Q 22.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
“Use Riya cold cream for fair complexion”- an advertisement.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. People like to use cream for fair complexion.
II. People are easily fooled.
III. People respond to advertisements.

A

Only I is implicit

B

Only I and II are implicit

C

Only II is implicit

Only I and III are implicit

Explanation

People like to use the cream for fair complexion and they respond to advertisements.

Q 23.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
“Smoking is injurious to health”-a warning printed on the cigarette packets.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. People read printed matter on the cigarette packet.
II. People take careful note of warning.
III. Non-smoking promotes health.

A

Only I is implicit

Only I and II are implicit

C

Only II is implicit

D

All are implicit

Explanation

People usually read the printed matter on the cigarette packet and they take careful note of the warning, hence the warning is printed on the packet.

Q 24.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement} : {/tex}
It is not always true that adoption of sophisticated technology increases production efficiency.
{tex}\mathrm{Assumptions} : {/tex}
I. Adoption of sophisticated technology is not difficult thing to achieve.
II. Production efficiency can be achieved by getting rid of sophisticated technology

A

if the assumption I is implicit.

B

if the assumption II is implicit.

if neither I nor II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Both the assumptions are not valid. If sophisticated technology can give increase production efficiency then what is the meaning of statement- ‘.......not always...’

Q 25.

Correct2

Incorrect-0.667

{tex}\mathrm{Statement}: {/tex}
A Harvard University study raises fresh concerns about the anti-allergy drug Crocin which is prescribed to patients following antibiotic medication. Compared with the other two anti-allergy drugs (one of the three must be prescribed), this study shows that Crocin significantly raised the risk of adverse side effects following antibiotic medication. {tex}\mathrm{Assumptions}:{/tex}
I. There is no risk if one of the two other anti-allergy drugs are administered.
II. It is necessary to take an anti-allergy drug after antibiotic medication.

A

if the assumption I is implicit.

if the assumption II is implicit.

C

if neither I nor II is implicit.

D

if both I and II are implicit.

Explanation

Since one of the three must be prescribed, Assumption II must be implied.