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UPSC > Agriculture

Explore popular questions from Agriculture for UPSC. This collection covers Agriculture previous year UPSC questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

Q 1.

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The chief characteristics of shifting cultivation are
1. High dependence on manual labour
2. Low level of technology
3. Utilization of poor soils through fallowing
4. Use of chemical fertilizers

A

1, 2 and 4

B

2, 3 and 4

C

1, 3 and 4

1, 2 and 3

Explanation

Shifting cultivation is a type of farming where people make temporary clearings in the forest to grow food. When the soil is no longer fertile after two to three years, the shifting cultivators abandon the field to look for another suitable plot of land. The first field is left to fallow, or rest, while the cultivators begin the cycle of activities on a new plot of land. The farmers may return to the same plot of land after 20 to 30 years.

Q 2.

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Double cropping is a common practice in areas having
1. a lot of rainfall
2. good irrigation facilities.
3. a long growing period.
4. alluvial soils.

A

2, 3 and 4

B

1, 2 and 4

1, 2 and 3

D

1, 3 and 4

Explanation

In agriculture, multiple cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in the same piece of land during a single growing season. It is a form of polyculture. It can take the form of doublecropping, in which a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested, or relay cropping, in which the second crop is started amidst the first crop before it has been harvested. A related practice, companion planting, is sometimes used in gardening and intensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits. One example of multi-cropping is tomatoes + onions + marigold; the marigolds repel some tomato pests.

Q 3.

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What are the conditions favourable for tea cultivation?
1. Warm temperature
2. High rainfall
3. High altitude
4. Sloping land

A

1, 2 and 3

B

2, 3 and 4

1, 2 and 4

D

All the four

Explanation

lndia is the largest producer and exporter of tea in the world. The ideal climatic conditions for the production and growing of tea are as follows:
• Temperature: 21 °C to 29°C is ideal for the production of tea. High temperature is required in summer. The lowest temperature for the growth of tea is l6°C.
• Rainfall: 150-250 cm of rainfall is required for lea cultivation.
• Soil: lea shrubs require fertile mountain soil mixed with lime and iron. The soil should be rich in humus.
• Land: lea cultivation needs well drained land. Stagnation of water is not good for tea plants. Heavy rainfall but no stagnancy of water, such mountain slopes are good for tea cultivation.

Q 4.

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What is the chief cause of low yields of crops in India?
1. Small size of holdings
2. Traditional methods of farming
3. Mass illiteracy among farmers
4. Low level of farm mechanization

A

1, 2 and 3

1, 2 and 4

C

2, 3 and 4

D

1, 3 and 4

Explanation

The low productivity in India is a result of the following factors:
• The average size of land holdings is very small (less than 2 hectares) and is subject to fragmentation due to land ceiling acts, and in some cases, family disputes
• Adoption of modem agricultural practices and use of technology is inadequate
• lndia has inadequate infrastructure and services.
• Iliteracy, general socio-economic backwardness, slow progress in implementing land reforms and inadequate or inefficient finance and marketing services.
• lnconsistent government policy.
• Irrigation facilities are inadequate,

Q 5.

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Match the Crops with the Soil required by them and accordingly select the correct alternative:

A - iv, B - iii, C - i, D - ii

B

A - ii, B - iii, C - iv, D - i

C

A - ii, B - iv, C - i, D - iii

D

A - iv, B - ii, C - i, D - iii

Explanation

Tea - Hill slopes with alluvial soil; Millets - Less fertile and sandy soil ;Rice - Alluvial soil with clayey sub - soil Coffee - well drained loamy soil.

Q 6.

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Which of the following statements regarding red soils of India is/are correct?
1. The colour of the soil is red due to ferric oxide content.
2. Red soils are rich in lime, humous and potash.
3. They are porous and have friable structure.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below

A

Only 1

1 and 3

C

2 and 3

D

1, 2 and 3

Explanation

Red soils are formed by weathering of the ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks. Their color is red due to their very high iron content. They are found in areas of low rainfall and are obviously less leached than laterite soils. They are sandier and less clayey soils. Red Soil in India is poor in phosphorus, nitrogen and lime contents. The red soil covers a large portion of land in India. It is found in Indian states such as Tamil Nadu, southern Karnataka, north-eastern Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.

Q 7.

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In an area with annual rainfall of more than 200 cm anc sloping hills which crop will be ideal?

A

Jute

B

Cotton

C

Maize

Tea

Explanation

In an area with annual rainfall of more than 200 cm and sloping hills will be the ideal for tea plantation.

Q 8.

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Which soil needs little irrigation as it retains soil moisture?

A

Alluvial soil

Black soil

C

Red soil

D

Laterite soil

Explanation

Black soil is formed due to Solid fication of lava spread over large areas during volcanic activity in the deccan plateau. The Soil is rich in iron and nitrogen. It is Suitable for cotton and groundnuts.

Q 9.

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Monoculture is a distinct characteristic of

Commercial grain fanning

B

Shifting cultivation

C

Subsistence fanning

D

Organic fanning

Explanation

Monoculture is a distinct characteristic of commercial grain farming. Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species over a wide area and for a large number of consecutive years.

Q 10.

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Which of the following crops are grown mostly under subsistence farming?

Millets and Rice

B

Cotton and Tobacco

C

Tea and Coffee

D

Vegetables and Fruits

Explanation

Millets and Rice are grown mostly under subsistence farming. Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficiency fanning in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families. The typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to feed and clothe themselves during the year.

Q 11.

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Dapog method of rice nursery was developed in

A

China

B

Indonesia

C

Japan

Philippines

Explanation

Dapog method of rice nursery was developed in Philippines. The dapog method of raising seedling originated in the Philippines and is now, fairly common in South and Southeast. The dapog nursery is constructed for the raising of seedlings without any soil whatsoever. Rice seeds contain sufficient food in the endosperm to permit the young seedling to grow for up to 14 days without receiving any outside nutrients except air, water, and sunlight. Consequently, it is possible to nurse seedlings without actually sowing them in soil.

Q 12.

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Which crop is afflicted by the disease called red rot ?

A

Rice

B

Wheat

C

Bajra

Sugarcane

Explanation

Red rot disease is caused by fungus and sugarean is afficted by it.

Q 13.

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Match column 1 with column 11 and select the correct answer using the code given below the columns:

A

A (i), B (ii), C (iii), D (iv)

B

A (iii), B (iv), C (i), D (ii)

A (ii), B (i), C (iv), D (iii)

D

A(i), B (iii), C (iv), D (ii)

Explanation

Rice is produced under 15 - 25°C, Tea is produce under 30 - 40°C, Cotton is produced under 25°C while coffee is produce under 20°C.

Q 14.

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Which of following methods is/are suitable for soi conservation in hilly region?
1. Terracing and contour bunding
2. Shifting cultivation
3. Contour ploughing
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

1 and 3

B

Only 2

C

Only 3

D

All of these

Explanation

Level terrace or contour bunding involves construction of bind passing through the points having same elevation ploughing and/or planting across a slope following its elevation contour lines.

Q 15.

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Which one of the following is the example of subsistence fanning?

Shifting cultivation

B

Commercial farming

C

Extensive and intensive fanning

D

Organic farming

Explanation

Subsistence fanning, form of fanning in which nearly all of the crops or livestock raised are used to maintain the farmer and the farmer's family, leaving little, if any, surplus for sale or trade. Preindustrial agricultural peoples throughout the world have traditionally practiced subsistence farming. Some of these peoples moved from site to site as they exhausted the soil at each location. As urban centres grew, agricultural production became more specialized and commercial farming developed, with farmers producing a sizable surplus of certain crops, which they traded for manufactured goods or sold for cash. Shifting cultivation is an example of subsistence fanning.

Q 16.

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lank irrigation is practised mainly in Peninsular India because
1. undulating relief and hard rocks make it difficult to dig canals and wells
2. rives are rainfed
3. of compact nature of population and agricultural field
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

1 and 2

B

2 and 3

C

1 and 3

D

All of these

Explanation

The tank irrigation is practised mainly in the peninsular India due to the following reasons
1. The undulating relief and hard rocks makes it difficult to dig canals and wells.
2. There is little percolation of rain water due to hard rock structure and ground water is not available in large quantity.
3. Most of the rivers of this region are seasonal and dry up in summer season. Therefore, they cannot supply water to canals throughout the year.
4. The scattered nature of population and agricultural fields also favours tank irrigation.

Q 17.

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Consider the following statements
1. Rural forestry aims to raise the trees on community land and on privately owned land.
2. Farm forestry encourages individual farmers to plant trees on their own farmland to meet the domestic need of the family.
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

A

Only 1

B

Only 2

Both 1 and 2

D

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

Rural forestry (also known as community forestry) aims to raise the trees on community land and on privately owned land as in farm forestry. Farm forestry encouraged individual farmers to plant trees on their own farmland to meet the domestic needs of the family. All these schemes are taken up under the social forestry programme.

Q 18.

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Which of the following are responsible for the decrease of per capita holding of cultivated land in India ?
1. Low per capita income.
2. Rapid rale of increase of population
3. Practice of dividing land equally among the heirs.
4. Use of traditional techniques of ploughing.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

A

1 and 2

2 and 3

C

land 4

D

2, 3 and 4

Explanation

The factors responsible for the decrease of per capita holding of cultivated land in lndia are
1. Rapid rate of increase of population.
2. Practice of dividing land equally among the heirs.

Q 19.

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Consider the following statements about black soil of lndia
1. Black soil becomes sticky when it is wet.
2. Black soil contains adequate nitrogen as well as phosphorus required for the growth of plants
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Only I

B

Only 2

C

Both 1 and 2

D

Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

Black soil becomes sticky when wet. It is deficient in: Nitrogen, Phosphorous and organic matter and rich in Iron, lime, calcium, potassium, aluminium and magnesium. Generally, black soil is found in the central, western and southern states of India.

Q 20.

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The term ‘Regur’ is used for

A

Alluvial soil

Black soil

C

Laterite soil

D

Yellow soil

Explanation

Black soil is a rich soil that is good for crops like cotton. It is found in various places around the world. It is most abundantly found in western central India, and also known as regur.

Q 21.

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In the soil pH 10, the soil is

Alkali

B

Saline

C

Acidic

D

Neutral

Explanation

Alkali, or alkaline, soils are clay soils with high pH (> 8. 5), a poor soil structure and a low infiltration capacity. Otten they have a hard calcareous layer at 0. 5 to I metre depth. Alkali soils owe their unfavorable physico-chemical properties mainly to the dominating presence of sodium carbonate which causes the soil to swell and difficult to clarify/settle.

Q 22.

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Which one of the following soils is suitable for cotton production?

Regur

B

Red

C

Bhangar

D

Khadar

Explanation

Black soil or Regur is Suitable for cotton production.

Q 23.

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The alluvial soil found along the banks of the rivers in the Ganga plain is called

Khadar

B

Bhangar

C

Bhur

D

Loess

Explanation

Khadir or Khadar plains are those that are low-lying next to a river. Khadir areas are prone to flooding and sometimes include portions of former river beds that became available for agriculture when a river changed course. Khadir soil consists of new alluvial deposits and is often very fertile.

Q 24.

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ln India more than half of the production of soyabean comes from

A

Andhra Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh

C

Maharashtra

D

Rajasthan

Explanation

Madhya Pradesh contributes more than 70% of the total soyabean production in the country.

Q 25.

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The term ‘operation flood’ refers to

A

Flood control

Milk production

C

Population control

D

Foodgrain production

Explanation

Operation Flood in India, a project of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was the world’s biggest dairy development program which transformed India, from a milkdeficient nation, the largest milk producer in the world, surpassing the USA in 1998.