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NEET

Explore popular questions from Structural Organization in Animals and Plants for NEET. This collection covers Structural Organization in Animals and Plants previous year NEET questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

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Structural Organization in Animals and Plants

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Q 1. Which one of the following is correct pairing of a body part and the kind of muscle tissue that moves it ?

Iris - Involuntary smooth muscle

B

Biceps of upper arm - Smooth muscle fibres

C

Abdominal wall - Voluntary smooth muscle

D

Heart wall - Involuntary unstriated muscle

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Q 2. I. Fat
II. Protein
III. Sugar
IV. Salt
Which of the above is/are present in higher concentration with the meristematic cells?

A

Only I

B

I and II

Only IV

D

III and IV

Explanation

In the meristematic cells, there is no reserve food materials like fat, protein and sugar. So, salts or inorganic material have more concentration than any other cells

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Q 3. G H Shull observed inbreeding depression in a plant. Miller and Letham isolated a hormone from the immature seeds of that plant. Which of the following characters is not associated with the plant?

A

Atactostelic condition in stem

B

Bundle sheath in leaf

C

Chromosomal number of endospermous cell is 30

Medulla absent in the root

Explanation

Inbreeding is mating between individuals related by descent or ancestry. Inbreeding depression is the reduction or loss in vigour and fertility as a result of inbreeding. Detailed information on inbreeding in maize was published independently by East and Shull . Maize is a monocot plant. Bundle sheath in leaf and medulla in roots are present in maize.

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Q 4. The inner, darker and harder portion of secondary xylem that cannot conduct water, in an older dicot stem, is called

A

Alburnum

B

Bast

C

Wood

Duramen

Explanation

The inner, darker and harder portion of secondary xylem that cannot conduct water, in an older dicot stem is known as heartwood or duramen, whereas the outer, functional, water conducting, younger secondary xylem constitute the sap-wood or alburnum.

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Q 5. Hardness of seed coats is due to the presence of

A

Sclerenchymatous fibres

B

Sclereids

C

Bast

Stone cells

Explanation

Stone cells provide the hardness to seed coats.

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Q 6. Epidermis is derived from

A

Cambium

B

Primary xylem

C

Secondary xylem

Protoderm

Explanation

Epidermis is the outermost protective layer of plant organs. It is usually simple layered but in the leaves of tropical plants  oleander, banyan) and velamen of some roots, the epidermis is more than one layer thickness. The epidermal tissue system is derived from the protoderm.

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Q 7. A monocot stem with secondary growth is

A

Lilium

B

Cocos

Yucca

D

Asparagus

Explanation

Secondary growth is the growth in girth of stem and roots. Anamolous or abnormal secondary growth is found in some monocot stems such as Yucca, Dracaena, Aloe, Agave, etc.

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Q 8. Vessels are absent in this angiosperm

A

Mangifera

B

Magnolia

C

Dillenia

Drimys

Explanation

Vessels are absent in some angiosperms e.g., Drimys. This is a homoxylous angiosperm.

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Q 9. The stele found in monocot is

A

Haplostele

Atactostele

C

Dictyostele

D

Actinostele

Explanation

Monocots have atactostele , in which vascular bundles are arranged into more than one ring and they are usually found at the centre of stem.

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Q 10. ‘Quiescent centre theory’ was proposed by

A

Nagelli

B

Schmidt

C

Hanstein

Clowes

Explanation

Clowes proposed quiescent centre theory.

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Q 11. Atactostele type of stele is found in

A

Dicot

Monocots

C

Both (a) and (b)

D

Only in gymnosperm

Explanation

Monocots have atactostele, in which vascular bundles are arranged into more than one ring and they are usually found at the centre of the stem

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Q 12. The histogens are classified on the basis of

A

Cells they contain

Cells they give rise to future tissue

C

Meristematic activity

D

Cell division

Explanation

The histogens are the group of cells, which give rise to future tissues. Major histogens of stem are as follows
1. Dermatogen forms external layers like epidermis.
2. Plerome forms central core of tissues like pith and vascular bundles.
3. Periblem forms the region between central core and epidermis such as endodermis, cortex, etc.

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Q 13. The vascular bundle, where the phloem is surrounded by xylem is known as

Amphivasal

B

Bicollateral

C

Amphicribal

D

Radial

Explanation

In amphivasal vascular bundle, the phloem is surrounded by xylem.

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Q 14. In rhizome of Pteridium, stele, which is composed of two or more than two concentric rings of vascular bundles is called

Polycyclic

B

Siphonostele

C

Ectophloic siphonostele

D

Cladosiphonostele

Explanation

The stele composed of two or more than two concentric rings of vascular bundles is called polycyclic, as found in Pteridium rhizome.

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Q 15.

Given below is the diagram of a stomatal apparatus. In which of the following, all the four parts labelled as A, B, C and D are correctly identified?

  A B C D
1.  Epidermal cell    Subsidiary cell         Stomatal aperture    Guard cell 
2.  Subsidiary cell  Epidermal cell  Guard cell  Stomatal aperture 
3. Guard cell  Stomatal aperture  Subsidiary cell  Epidermal cell 
4. Epidermal cell  Guard cell Stomatal aperture  Subsidiary cell 

1

B

2

C

3

D

4

Explanation

In gasses, i.e., monocots, the guard cells are dump-bell shaped

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Q 16. Science, which deals with the study of ageing is known as

A

Teratology

Gerontology

C

Limnology

D

Palaeontology

Explanation

Gerontology is the study of ageing and senescence.

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Q 17. Prickles
I. don’t have vascular supply
II. are epidermal in origin
III. help in climbing
Select the right combination of statements from the given options

A

I and II

B

II and III

C

I and III

I, II and III

Explanation

Prickles are the example of emergences. These are multicellular epidermal sharp and stiff outgrowth, which do not have vascular supply. They protect the plant from excessive transpiration, grating animals and in some, helps the plant in climbing

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Q 18. Phytotron is

A controlled condition chamber for tissue

B

Leaf culture process

C

Special culture of plants

D

Root culture process

Explanation

Phytotron is a device or chamber, in which plants can be grown under controlled conditions.

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Q 19. The lacunae in vascular bundle of monocot stem is

A

Amucilage canal

B

A large-sized vessel

Lysigenous water cavity

D

Metaxylem

Explanation

During primary growth, protoxylem elements are crushed and they form a distinct cavity known as lysigenous water cavity.

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Q 20. The meristem, in which the cells divide in several planes is

Plate meristem

B

Rib meristem

C

Mass meristem

D

Lateral meristem

Explanation

In plate meristem , the cells divide in several planes and consequently, there is an increase in the area of the organ. It results in the formation of flat structures, e.g., in epidermal growth and leaf formation.

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Q 21. Compound  sieve plates are found in

Cucurbita

B

Vitis

C

Magnolia

D

Corchorus

Explanation

Compound sieve plate consists of several pore regions, which are separated by bars of wall thickening, 

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Q 22. The following diagrams show the types of secondary thickening in the xylem vessels. Identify the types labelled from A to F. Choose the correct option from those given.
Description: D:\Common Folder\scan\biology\6.anatomy of flowering plants\topic 1 q no 60.jpg

A

A-Spiral, B-Annular, C-Reticulate, D-Scalariform, E-Pitted with border, F-Pitted, simple

A-Annular, B-Spiral, C-Scalariform, D-Reticulate, E-Pitted with border, F-Pitted, simple

C

A-Annular, B-Spiral, C-Scalariform, D-Reticulate, E-Pitted, simple, F-Pitted with border

D

A-Spiral, B-Annular, C-Scalariform, D-Reticulate, E-Pitted with border, F-Pitted, simple

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Q 23. A bicollateral vascular bundle has the following arrangement of tissues.

A

Outer phloem  Outer xylem  Middle cambium  Inner xylem Inner phloem

B

Outer cambium  Outer phloem  Middle xylem  Inner phloem  Inner cambium

Outer phloem  Outer cambium  Middle xylem  Inner cambium  Inner phloem

D

Outer xylem  Outer cambium  Middle phloem  Inner cambium  Inner xylem

Explanation

In a bicollateral vascular bundle, the phloem occurs in two groups one outside the xylem and the other inner to it, i.e., two groups of phloem, one on each side of xylem.
So, the correct sequence is
Outer phloem  Outer Cambium  Middle xylem  Inner cambium  Inner phloem

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Q 24. Secondary phloem remains functional generally

A

For one year

B

For less than one year

C

For many years

As long as plant is alive

Explanation

Secondary phloem remains functional as long as plant is alive.

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Q 25. In previous question, the given diagram is the TS of

A

Root and belongs to monocot

B

Stem and belongs to monocot

Root and belongs to dicot

D

Stem and belongs to dicot

Explanation

Root and belongs to dicot