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Explore popular questions from Structural Organization in Animals and Plants for NEET. This collection covers Structural Organization in Animals and Plants previous year NEET questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

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Structural Organization in Animals and Plants

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Q 1. Which meristem helps in increasing girth?

Lateral meristem

B

Intercalary meristem

C

Primary meristem

D

Apical meristem

Explanation

The meristem that helps in increasing girth is lateral meristem. The lateral meristem is responsible for lateral growth of the plant growth in thickness  cambium and cork cambium. It divides only periclinally or radially and is responsible for increase in girth or diameter.

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Q 2. Collenchyma occurs in

A

herbaceous climbers

B

woody climbers

climbing stems

D

water plants.

Explanation

Collenchyma occurs in climbing stems. Collenchyma occurs in the stem and petioles of dicot herbs. Due to deposition of pectin, it has high water retaining capacity. Since pectin appears at the angles, it becomes a spongy tissues. The collenchyma is a mechanical tissue which gives tensile strength to the plant.

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Q 3. Which one of the following pairs of structures distinguishes a nerve cell from other types of cell?

A

Vacuoles and fibres

B

Flagellum and medullary sheath

C

Nucleus and mitochondria

Perikaryon and dendrites

Explanation

Neuron (nerve cell) is one of the basic functional units of the nervous system. Neuron is a cell specialized to transmit electrical nerve impulse and so carry information from one part of the body to another. Each neuron has an enlarged portion, the cell body (perikaryon), containing the nucleus; from the body extend several processes (dendrites) through which impulses enter from their branches. A longer process, the nerve fibre, extends outward and carries impulses away from the cell body. This is normally unbranched except at the nerve ending. The point of contact of one neuron with another is known as a synapse.

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Q 4. The cells lining the blood vessels belong to the category of

A

smooth muscle tissue

squamous epithelium

C

columnar epithelium

D

connective tissue.

Explanation

Simple squamous epithelium is composed of large flat cells whose edges fit closely together like the tiles in a floor, hence it is also called pavement epithelium. The nuclei of the cells are flattened and often lie at the centre of the cells and cause bulgings of cells surface. The epithelium lines the blood vessels, lymph vessels, heart, terminal bronchioles,alveoli of the lungs, walls of the Bowman's capsules,descending limbs of loop of Henle. In the blood vessels and heart it is called endothelium.

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Q 5. Identify the type of modified root and select the correct statement regarding this

It is the tuberous root of Dahila that stores inulin as reserve food.

B

It is a modified tap root that occurs in Dahila.

C

These roots are modified to provide mechanical support to the plant.

D

It is a modified adventitious root that stores reserve food material

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Q 6. The placenta is attached to the developing seed near the

A

Testa

B

Chalaza

Hilum

D

Micropyle

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Q 7.
The above figure is related to the root-tip. Identify zones A, B and C

A

A - zone of elongation, B - zone of meiosis, C - zone of mitosis

B

A - zone of maturation, B - zone of meristematic activity, C - zone of elongation

C

A - zone of mitosis, B - zone of elongation, C - Zone of root cap

A - region of maturation, B - region of elongation, C - meristematic activity

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Q 8.

Which of the following is incorrect about A, B, C and D

A

Tap roots of carrot, turnip and adventitious root of sweet potato, get swollen and store food

B

Pneumatophores help to get oxygen for respiration

Pneumatophore is found in the plants that grow in sandy soil.

D

A, B and C are underground roots but D grows vertically upwards

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Q 9. Arrangement of flowers floral axis is called -

A

Placentation

B

Phyllotaxy

Inflorescence

D

Angiology

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Q 10. Match the Column I with Column II -

Column I
(Aestivation in Corolla)
Column II
(Examples)
A. PolysGamo I Flower of lily
B. Polysepalous II. Sterile anther
C.  Polypelatous III. Free sepals
D. Epiphyllous IV. Free sepals
E.Staminode V. Fused petals
  VI. Fused sepals

A

A - IV, B - V, C - III, D - I, E-VI, F-II

B

A - IV, B - V, C - III, D - I, E-II, F-VI

A - VI, B - IV, C - V, D - III, E-I, F-II

D

A - VI, B - IV, C - V, D - III, E-II, F-I

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Q 11. Identify A and B leaves -

A - Pinnately compound leaf, B - Palmately compound leaf

B

A - Palmately compound leaf, B - Pinnately compound leaf

C

A - Pinnately compound leaf, B - Pinnately compound leaf

D

A - Palmately compound leaf, B - Palmately compound leaf

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Q 12. Pericarp is -

A

Epicarp

B

Mesocarp

C

Endocarp

A B and C

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Q 13. Match the Column I with Column II -

Column IColumn II
A. Edible mesocarp(i) Coconut
B. Endospermous seed(ii) Mango
C. Fibrous mesocarp (iii) Bean
D. Non endospermous seed(iv) Castor
E. Ovules (v) Future fruit
F.Ovary (vi) Future seed

A

A - (ii), B - (iv), C - (vi), D - (i), E - (iii), F - (v)

B

A - (i), B - (iii), C - (v), D - (ii), E - (iv), F - (iv)

C

A - (vi), B - (v), C - (iv), D - (iii), E - (ii), F - (i)

A - (i), B - (iv), C - (i), D - (iii), E - (vi), F - (v)

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Q 14. Choose the correct description of the flower depicted in the floral diagram given below -

A

United, valvate sepals; free, imbricate petals; free stamens; unilocular ovary with axile placenta

B

United, valvate sepals; free, twisted petals; free stamens; unilocular ovary with marginal placenta

United, valvate sepals; free, twisted petals; free stamens; unilocular ovary with basal placenta

D

United, valvate sepal; free imbricate petals, epipetalous stamens; unilocular ovary with marginal placenta

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Q 15. Leaves become modified into spines in (AIPMT 2015, Cancelled)

A

onion

B

silk cotton

Opuntia

D

pea

Explanation

In xerophytic plants, the leaves modify into sharp, pointed spines e.g. Aloe, Solanum surattense, Opuntia, Asparagus etc. This modification is either for protection of plant or to lessen transpiration, or for both.

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Q 16. An example of edible underground stem is (AIPMT 2014)

A

carrot

B

groundnut

C

sweet potato

potato

Explanation

Carrot and sweet potato are root modifications while edible part of groundnut is seeds. Potato is an edible underground stem.

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Q 17. An example of axile placentation is (Prelims 2009)

A

Dianthus

Lemon

C

Marigold

D

Argemone

Explanation

In marigold of asteraceae the ovary is superior, 2 or 3 locular, placentation is axile,ovules 1 to many per locule, style 1, stigma 2 or 3 lobed.

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Q 18. An example of a seed with endosperm, perisperm, and caruncle is (Prelims 2009)

A

coffee

B

lily

castor

D

cotton

Explanation

In castor seed testa and tegmen are united together. Seed coat is tough and bright due to scleroprotein. Over narrower end a brownish pad is found which is called caruncle. Caruncle is carbohydrate in nature. This protects micropyle and develops as an integumental outgrowth after fertilization. Below seed coat a very thin membrane is found over kernel and called perisperm (the persistant nucellus). Below perisperm there is a large, white, swollen and oily mass called endsoperm.

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Q 19. Geocarpic fruit is (2002)

A

potato

peanut

C

onion

D

garlic

Explanation

Peanut is geocarpic fruit.

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Q 20. Geocarpic fruits is

A

carrot

B

radish

ground nut

D

turnip

Explanation

Groundnut is geocarpic fruit.

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Q 21. Floral features are chiefly used in angiosperms identification because (1998)

A

flowers can be safely pressed

reproductive parts are more stable and conservative than vegetative parts

C

flowers are nice to work with

D

flowers are of various colours

Explanation

Floral features are used to identify because reproductive parts are more stable and conservative than vegetative parts.

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Q 22. Which plant will lose its economic value, if its fruits are produced by induced parthenocarpy? (1997)

A

orange

B

banana

C

grape

pomegranate

Explanation

Development of fruits without fertilization is called parthenocarpy and such fruits are called parthenocarpic fruits. Since in pomegranate juicy testa is the edible part and parthenocarpy will make the fruit seedless and hence they will be useless.

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Q 23. Vivipary is (1992)

A

seed germination with subterranean cotyledons

B

seed germination with epiterranean cotyledons

C

fruit development without pollination

seed germination inside the fruit while attached to the plant

Explanation

Some plants (for example mangroves) are viviparous in which the seed germinates within the fruit, while attached to the plant.

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Q 24. Botanical name of cauliflower is (1991)

Brassica oleracea var. capitata

B

Brassica compesteris

C

Brassica oleracea var. botrytis

D

Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera

Explanation

Botanical name of cauliflower is Brassica oleracea belongs to variety capitata. Family of cauliflower is cruciferae.

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Q 25. Velamen is found in (1991)

A

roots of screwpine

B

aerial and terrestrial roots of orchids

C

leaves of Ficus elastica

aerial roots of orchids

Explanation

Velamen is found in aerial roots of orchids. In many epiphytic orchids, the aerial roots are covered by a hygroscopic velamen tissue. They absorb water from the atmosphere.