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Explore popular questions from Human Physiology for NEET. This collection covers Human Physiology previous year NEET questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

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Q 1. Which of the following is an accumulation and release centre of neurohormones ?

A

Anterior pituitary lobe

B

Posterior pituitary lobe

C

Intermediate lobe of the pituitary

Hypothalamus

Explanation

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Q 2. The function of oxytocin is to help in

child birth

B

gametogenesis

C

growth

D

lactation.

Explanation

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Q 3. Alzheimer's disease in humans is associated with the deficiency of

A

glutamic acid

acetylcholine

C

gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

D

dopamine.

Explanation

Alzheimer's disease is a neurological disease characterized by progressive loss of intellectual ability. The disease, which is named after German physician Alois Alzheimer {tex} ( 1864 - 1915 ) , {/tex} is associated with general shrinkage of the brain tissue, with deposits of {tex} \square {/tex} -amyloid protein and abnormal filaments composed of tau protein in the brain, and changes in the neurotransmitter systems within the brain that include a loss in the activity of cholinergic neurons(neurons releasing acetylcholine). Some inherited forms are associated with a genetic locus onchromosome 21.

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Q 4. Which cranial nerve has the highest number of branches?

Vagus nerve

B

Trigeminal nerve

C

Facial nerve

D

None of these

Explanation

Trigeminal nerve is the largest 5{tex}^{th}{/tex} cranial nerve. It has 3 branches-
(i) Ophthalamic, a sensory branch from skin of the nose, eyelids, forehead and scalp, and from theconjunctiva and lacrimal glands.
(ii) Maxillary, also sensory branch from skin and mucous membrane of cheeks and upper lip, and from lower eyelids.
(iii) Mandibular, a mixed branch innervating the lower jaw, lower lip, pinna and tongue.
Vagus nerve is the {tex} 10 ^ { \text { th } } {/tex} cranial nerve with 5 branches, and innervates larynx, trachea, oesophagus, stomach, lungs, heart and intestines. Facial nerve is the {tex} 7 ^ { \text { th } } {/tex} cranial nerve and innervates muscles of face and back, taste buds and salivary glands.

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Q 5. Choose the correct statement.

A

Nociceptors respond to changes in pressure.

B

Meissner's corpuscles are thermoreceptors.

Photoreceptors in the human eye are depolarised during darkness and become hyperpolarised in response to the light stimulus.

D

Receptors do not produce graded potentials.

Explanation

Photoreceptors in human eye are unique because they are only type of sensory cells that are relatively depolarised (about -35mV) when it is at rest (i.e., in the dark), and hyperpolarised (to about -70mV) in response to adequate light stimulus.Nociceptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain. Meissner's corpuscles are a typeof mechanoreceptor, responsible for touch sensitivity.Receptors generally produce graded potentials called receptor potentials.

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Q 6. The word "hormone'' means

A

To move

To set in motion

C

To initiate

D

To increase

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Q 7. Who proposed the term 'pheromone'

A

Bergstroem

B

Karlson

C

Starling

Peter Karlson and Martin Lüscher

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Q 8.
Drop in production of testosterone is the result of reduction in

ICSH

B

LH

C

GH

D

Prolactin

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Q 9. Water drinkers is the name given to persons who have

Undersecretion of ADH

B

Oversecretion of ADH

C

Absence of ADH

D

None of the above

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Q 10. Thyroxin was isolated by

Edward C Kendall

B

Best and Sterling

C

F. Senger

D

None of the above

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Q 11. The given table enlists various hormones an their chemical nature. Select the option which completes the table.

Hormone Chemical composition
(i)  Peptide
Testosterone (ii) 
Thyroxine (iii)
(iv)  Amino - acid derivative

 

A

Cortisol Steroid Polypeptide Extradiol

B

Insuline Protein Polypeptide Epinephrine

Insulin Steroid Iodothyronine Epinephrine

D

Cortical Protein Amine Extradiol

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Q 12. Select the option that correctly identifies the labels A, B, C and D in the given diagram.

A-Anterior Pituitary
B-Posterior Pituitary
C-Portal Circulations
D-Hypothalamic Neurons

B

A-Anerior Pituitary
B-Posterior Pituitary
C-Blood vessels
D-Thalamus

C

A-Posterior Pituitary
B-Anterior Pituitary
C-Hypothalamus
D-Thalamus

D

A-Hypothalamic Neurons
B-Posterior Pituitary
C-Anterior Pituitary
D-Portal Circulations

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Q 13. Which of the following match is correct ?
Hormone - effect

A

Hormone - Glucagon
Effect - Decrease  blood sugar level 

B

Hormone - Adrenaline
Effect - Decreases heart sugar rate

Hormone -Oxytocin
Effect -Milk ejection hormone  

D

Hormone - Thyroxine
Effect -Decreases BMR 

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Q 14. Given below is an incomplete table about certain hormones, their source glands and one major effect of each on the body in humans. Selects the options that correctly fills the blanks A, B and C.

Glands  |SecretionsI  |Effect on body|
|A|  Oestrogen    Maintenance of secondary sexual characters 
Alpha cells of islets of Langerhans Raises blood sugar level 
Anterior pituitary C Oversecretion leads to gigantism

      
                 

A-Ovary  B-Glucagon C-Growth hormone

B

A-Placenta B-Glucagon C-Calcitonin

C

A-Placenta B-Insulin C-Vasopressin

D

A-Ovary B-Insulin C-Calcitonin

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Q 15. Select the options that correctly identifies A to E in the given flowchart.

A

Glucagon Hyperglycemia Hypolycaemia

B

  Cortisol Hypoglycaemia Hyperglycaemia

 Glucagon Hypoglycaemia Hyperglycaemia 

D

Cortisol Hyperglycaemia Hypoglycaemia

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Q 16. Consider the following figures. Identify A to B

A

A - Thyroid, B - Corpus luteum, C - Trachea,
D - Parathyroid gland

B

A - Thyroid, B - Isthmus, C - Laryns, D - Parathyroid gland

C

A - Parathyroid gland, B - Isthmus, C - Trachea, D - Thyroid

A - Thyroid, B - Isthmus, C - Trachea, D - Parathyroid gland

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Q 17. Observe the following figures. Identify A to D-

A

A - Parathyroid gland, B - Isthmus, C - Trachea,
D - Thyroid

A - thyroid, B - Isthmus, C - Trachea, D - Parathyroid gland

C

A - Thyroid, B - Isthmus, C - Larynx, D - Parathyroid gland

D

A - Thyroid, B - Corpus luteum, D - Parathyroid gland

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Q 18. I. Maximum iodine is stored in thyroid gland
II. Calcitonin is non-iodinised hormone secreted by
parafollicular cells of thyroid gland.
III. Calcitonin (TCT) regulates the blood Ca+2 level
IV. TCT is hypocalcemic factor
Which statement is or are correct ?

All are correct

B

All are wrong

C

Only I, II and III are correct

D

Only IV are correct

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Q 19. In humans, _________ parathyroid glands are present on ________ side of ________ gland.

A

2, back, thyroid

4, back, thyroid

C

4, front, thyroid

D

2, lateral, thyroid

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Q 20. Which of the following endocrine glands degenerates / atrophies in old age?

A

Thyroid

Thymus

C

Parathyroid

D

Adrenal

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Q 21. Which one of the following does not act as a neurotransmitter?

Cortison

B

Epinephrine

C

Norepinephrine

D

Acetylcholine

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Q 22. The glucose homeostasis in blood is maintained jointly by-

A

Insulin and epinephrine

B

Insulin and nor-epinephrine

Insulin and glucagon

D

Glucagon and cortisol

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Q 23. Sleep-wake cycle and menstrual cycle are maintained by

A

Progesterone

Melatonin

C

Oxytocin

D

MSH

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Q 24. Which hormone interacts with membrane bound receptor and does not normally enter the target cell

FSH

B

Estrogen

C

Thyroxin

D

Cortisol

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Q 25. Which of the following is the function of testosterone

A

Is stimulates muscular growth and aggressiveness

B

It influences male sexual behaviour (libido)

C

It causes anabolic (synthetic) effect on protein /carbohydrate metabolism

All of these