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NEET

Explore popular questions from Genetics and Evolution for NEET. This collection covers Genetics and Evolution previous year NEET questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

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Genetics and Evolution

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Q 1. Natural Selection -
A. Tends to increase the characters that enhance survival and reproduction
B. Causes
C. Acts on an organisms phenotype
D. Was considered as mechanism of evolution by Darwin

A

All are correct

B

Only A and B are correct

C

Only C and D are correct

None is correct

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Q 2. Mark the correct statement

A

Homo erectus lived in east and central Asia and used hides to protect their bodies

B

Agriculture came around 18000 years backQ

The skull of modern human resembles more closely to baby chimpanzee than to adult chimpanzee

D

All of these

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Q 3. In mice, black coat (allele B) is dominant to white coat (b) and straight whiskers (allele S) are dominant to curved whiskers (s).
When true-breeding mice with black coats and straight whiskers were crossed with white mice possessing curved whiskers, the offspring were all black with straight whiskers.
If these F1 mice were crossed with white mice possessing curved whiskers, the expected proportion of offspring with black coats and curved whiskers in the next generation would be

1 in 16

B

3 in 16

C

4 in 16

D

9 in 16

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Q 4. Genetic drift operates in

small isolated population

B

large isolated population

C

non-reproductive population

D

slow reproductive population.

Explanation

The random changes in gene frequencies in a population occuring by chance alone rather than by natural selection are called genetic drift or Sewall wright effect. The effects of genetic drift are most marked in very small isolated population,although it occurs in all populations.

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Q 5. In Hardy-Weinberg equation, the frequency of heterozygous individual is represented by

A

{tex} p ^ { 2 } {/tex}

{tex}2 p q {/tex}

C

{tex} p q {/tex}

D

{tex} q ^ { 2 } {/tex}.

Explanation


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Q 6. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the origin of life{tex}?{/tex}
I. Formation of protobionts
II. Synthesis of organic monomers
III. Synthesis of organic polymers
IV. Formation of {tex}\mathrm{DNA}{/tex}-based genetic systems

A

{tex} \mathrm { I } , \mathrm { II} , \mathrm { III } , \mathrm { IV } {/tex}

B

{tex} \mathrm { I } , \mathrm { III } , \mathrm { II } , \mathrm { IV } {/tex}

{tex} \mathrm { II } , \mathrm { III } , \mathrm { I } , \mathrm { IV } {/tex}

D

{tex} \mathrm { II } , \mathrm { III } , \mathrm { IV } , \mathrm { I } {/tex}

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Q 7. Which of the following structures is homologus to the wing of a bird?

A

Hindlimb of rabbit

Flipper of whale

C

Dorsal fin of a shark

D

Wing of a moth

Explanation

Flipper of Whale is homologus to the wing of a bird. Homologous organs - The structure which are similar in their morphology, anatomy, genetics and embryology, but dissimilar in their functions. Flipper of whale and wing of bird has similar morphology and anatomy, but differ in their functions according to their species as well as the habitat where they live in.

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Q 8. Following are the two statements regarding the origin of life.
(A)The earliest organisms that appeared on the earth were non-green and presumably anaerobes.
(B) The first autotrophic organisms were the chemoautotrophs that never released oxygen.
Of the above statements which one of the following options is correct {tex}?{/tex}

Both (A) and (B) are correct.

B

Both (A) and (B) are false.

C

(A) is correct but (B) is false.

D

(B) is correct but (A) is false.

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Q 9. The wings of a bird and the wings of an insect are

A

phylogenetic structure and represent divergent evolution

B

homologous structures and represent convergent evolution

C

homologous structures and represent divergent evolution

analogous structures and represent convergent evolution.

Explanation


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Q 10. Industrial melanism is an example of

A

mutation

B

Neo-Lamarckism

C

Neo-Darwinism

natural selection.

Explanation


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Q 11. According to Darwin, the organic evolution is due to

A

competition within closely related species

B

reduced feeding efficiency in one species due to the presence of interfering species

intraspecific competition

D

interspecific competition.

Explanation


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Q 12. Random unidirectional change in allele frequencies that occurs by chance in all populations and especially in small populations is known as

A

migration

B

natural selection

genetic drift

D

mutation.

Explanation


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Q 13. Genetic variation in a population arises due to

A

recombination only

mutation as well as recombination

C

reproductive isolation and selection

D

mutations only.

Explanation



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Q 14. 'Origin of Species' was written by

A

Oparin

B

Weismann

C

Lamarck

Darwin

Explanation


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Q 15. Humming birds and Hawk illustrate

A

convergent evolution

B

homology

adaptive radiation

D

parallel evolution.

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Q 16. The process by which organisms with different evolutionary history evolve similar phenotypic adaptations in response to a common environmental challenge, is called

A

non-­random evolution

B

adaptive radiation

C

natural selection

convergent evolution

Explanation

Convergent evolution is a topic of evolutionary biology which can be described as the process where some diverse organisms individually develop the traits which are similar in function. For example : insects, birds, pterosaurs, and bats; all have developed the similar nature of the flight/wings. All four serve the same function and are similar in structure, but each evolved independently. So, the correct answer is 'Convergent evolution'

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Q 17.
The figure gives an important concept in the genetic implication of DNA. Fill the blanks A,B and C.

A

A - Maurice Wilkins, B -Transcription, C -Translation

B

A - James Watson, B - Replication, C - Extension

C

A - Erwin Chargaff, B - Translation, C - Replication

A - Francis Crick, B - Translation, C - Transcription

Explanation


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Q 18. Which of the following is not a property of the genetic code ?

A

Non-overlapping

Ambiguous

C

Degeneracy

D

Universal

Explanation


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Q 19. In an inducible operon, the genes are

usually not expressed unless a signal turns them "on".

B

usually expressed unless a signal turns them "off".

C

never expressed

D

always expresser.

Explanation


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Q 20. The unequivocal proof of DNA as the genetic material came from the studies on a

A

bacterium

B

fungus

C

viroid

bacterial virus.

Explanation


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Q 21. In eukaryotic cell transcription, RNA splicing and RNA capping take place inside the

A

ribosomes

nucleus

C

dictyosomes

D

ER

Explanation

In eukaryotic cell transcription, RNA splicing and RNA capping take place inside the nucleus. The processed mRNA then transported to the cytoplasm (i.e., mature mRNA) where they can be translated by the ribosome. The translation may occur at ribosomes cytoplasm or directed to the endoplasmic reticulum by the signal recognition particle. Because eukaryotic transcription and translation are compartmentally separated, eukaryotic mRNAs must be exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

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Q 22. Removal of introns and joining the exons in a defined order in a transcription unit is called

A

tailing

B

transformation

C

capping

splicing.

Explanation

Removal of introns and joining the exons in a defined order in a transcription unit is called as splicing. Splicing is a modification of the nascent pre-messenger RNA transcript in which introns are removed and exons are joined. For nuclear encoded genes, splicing takes place within the nucleus after or concurrently with transcription. Splicing is needed for the typical eukaryotic messenger RNA before it can be used to produce a correct protein through translation. For many eukaryotic introns, splicing is done in a series of reactions which are catalyzed by the spliceosome, a complex of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, but there are also self-splicing introns. So, the correct answer is 'Splicing'

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Q 23. Which one of the following makes use of RNA template to synthesize DNA ?

A

DNA polymerase

B

RNA polymerase

Reverse transcriptase

D

DNA dependant RNA polymerase

Explanation

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Q 24. During transcription, if the nucleotide sequence of the DNA strand that is being coded is ATACG then the nucleotide sequence in the {tex}m{/tex}RNA would be

A

TATGC

B

TCTGG

UAUGC

D

UATGC

Explanation


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Q 25. A DNA with unequal nitrogen bases would most probably be

single stranded

B

double stranded

C

triple stranded

D

four stranded.

Explanation