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Explore popular questions from Diversity in Living World for NEET. This collection covers Diversity in Living World previous year NEET questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

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Diversity in Living World

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Q 1. Archaebacteria differ from eubacteria in

cell membrane structure

B

mode of nutrition

C

cell shape

D

mode of reproduction.

Explanation

The archaebacteria are the 'ancient' bacteria that include extremophiles like methanogens,halophiles and thermophiles. They represent some of the most ancient of life forms that persist today. They have both eubacterial and eukaryotic characters besides the features unique to them.Their mode of reproduction, nutrition and cell shape and size resembles a typical eubacteria. Their cell walls are made of a variety of polymers, but do not contain peptidoglycan unlike eubacteria. Lipids of their cytoplasmic membranes are ether linked unlike eubacteria which contain glycerol ester lipids in their cell membrane.

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Q 2. There exists a close association between the alga and the fungus within a lichen. The fungus

provides protection, anchorage and absorption for the algae

B

provides food for the alga

C

fixes the atmospheric nitrogen for the alga

D

releases oxygen for the alga.

Explanation

Lichens are peculiar dual organisms produced by the intimate association of two organims: a fungus and an alga.The association between the two organisms is symboisis.Both the organisms are mutually benefitted in this association and are dependent on each other.The algal cell photosynthesizes with the help of chloroplast.Therefore liches are autotrophic. Part of these manufactured carbohydrates are used by the alga in its nutrition,the rest is supplied to the fungal partner.The fungus in turn provides water and nutrients which it absorbs from the soil using the rhizoidal hyphae.Thus both the partners get benefitted from each other.The algal partner is called phycobiont and the fungal partner is called mycobiont.

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Q 3. The figures {tex} ( \mathrm { A } - \mathrm { D } ) {/tex} show four animals. Select the correct option with respect to a common characteristic of two of these animals.

A

(A) and (D) respire mainly through body wall

B

(B) and (C) show radial symmetry

C

(A) and (B) have cnidoblasts for self-defence

(C) and (D) have a true coelom.

Explanation

The animals which possess true coelom arecalled eucoelomates or coelomates. The true coelomis a body cavity which arises as a cavity in embryonicmesoderm. True coelom is of two types; schizocoelom(schizocoel) and enterocoelom (enterocoel).
Schizocoelom develops as a split in the mesodermsheet. It is found in annelids, arthropods, molluscs.In enterocoelom, mesoderm arises from the wall ofthe embryonic cut of enteron as hollow outgrowths.It occurs in echinoderms and chordates.

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Q 4. Given below are four matchings of an animal and its kind of respiratory organ:

{tex} \mathrm { (A) }{/tex}Silver fish {tex}\quad {/tex} - {tex}\quad {/tex} Trachea
{tex} \mathrm { (B) }{/tex}Scorpion {tex}\quad\ {/tex} - {tex}\quad {/tex} Book lung
{tex} \mathrm { (C) }{/tex}Sea squirt {tex}\quad {/tex}- {tex}\quad \ {/tex}Pharyngeal slits
{tex} \mathrm { (D) }{/tex}Dolphin {tex}\quad\ \ \ {/tex}- {tex}\quad {/tex}Skin

choose the correct match

A

{tex} \mathrm {( A ) }{/tex} and {tex}\mathrm { ( B )} {/tex}

{tex} ( \mathrm { A } ) , ( \mathrm { B } ) {/tex} and {tex} ( \mathrm { C } ) {/tex}

C

{tex}\mathrm { ( B )} {/tex} and {tex} \mathrm {( D )} {/tex}

D

{tex} \mathrm {( C ) }{/tex} and {tex} \mathrm {( D )} {/tex}

Explanation

Silver fish is an insect in which respiration occurs by tracheae. These communicate with the exterior by paired apertures, called spiracles.Respiratory system of scorpion consists of 4 pairs of book lungs that communicate with the outer air through stigma. In sea squirt, respiration occurs through pharyngeal slits. In dolphin, respiration occurs by lungs.

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Q 5. Which of the following is common among mammals?

They undergo no moulting.

B

They have seven cervical vertebrae.

C

They are carnivores.

D

They have ventral nerve cord.

Explanation

Mammals do not undergo moulting. Moulting is usually exhibited by invertebrates. In many vertebrate species, cervical vertebrae are variable in number, however almost all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae including those with shortneck such as elephants or whales and those with very long necks, such as giraffes. But there are a few
exceptional cases in which there are nine cervical vertebrae in mammals. All the mammals are not carnivorous, they may be herbivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous also. Mammals have dorsal nervecord.

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Q 6. An insect regarded as greatest mechanical carrier of diseases is

A

Pediculus

B

Cimex

Musca

D

Xenopsylla

Explanation

Musca is the zoological name of house fly which is regarded as mechanical carrier of many diseases. It is very active and keeps on visiting on dirty things and eatables as well.

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Q 7. Ecdysis is shedding of

stratum corneum

B

epidermis

C

dermis

D

stratum malpighi.

Explanation

The stratum corneum ("the horny layer") is the outermost layer of the epidermis (the outermostlayer of the skin). It is composed mainly off dead cells that lack nuclei. In reptiles, the stratum corneum is permanent, and is only replaced during times of rapid growth, in a process called ecdysis or moulting. During ecdysis, small fragments of this layer areperiodically shed of from the body. The new layer is regularly formed by underlying stratum germinativum.

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Q 8. Wish bone of birds is from

A

pelvic girdle

B

skull

C

hind limbs

pectoral girdle/clavicles.

Explanation

The wish bone, known in anatomy as the furcula, is a sternum bone found in birds which is shaped like the letter Y. It is used as an attachment point for the wing muscles. It is so named because of a tradition: Two people pull on each side of such a bone, and when it breaks, the one who gets the larger part is said to have a wish granted. Two clavicles fused with inter clavicle to form a fork shaped bone called wish bone.

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Q 9. Some bacteria are able to grow in streptomycin containing medium due to

natural selection

B

induced mutation

C

reproductive isolation

D

genetic drift.

Explanation

Normally bacteria cannot survive in antibiotic containing medium but if it does so it must have acquired resistance against that antibiotic. These are well adapted to grow in streptomycin containing medium and thus are more evolved. So due to natural selection only the more evolved and better adapted species is able to survive.

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Q 10. Malaria fever coincides with liberation of

A

cryptomerozoties

metacryptomerozoites

C

merozoites

D

trophozoites.

Explanation

Symptoms of malaria first appear severalvdays after the infection of the malaria parasite invman. This interval of time or the incubation period is utilized by the parasites to increase their progeny.To establish malarial symptoms, it is necessary that a large number of organisms must continue erythrocytic cycle at a time.
A healthy person acquires infection when a female {tex}Anopheles{/tex} mosquito, containing infective stages of parasite (sporozoites) in its salivary glands, bites him for sucking his blood. Once within the human blood, the sporozoites get into liver to invade the hepatic cells. Here they multiply asexually by schizogony. Liver schizogony has two phases, pre-erythrocytic and exo-erythrocytic:
Pre-erythrocytic phase : After penetrating a hepatic cell each sporozoite becomes a cryptozoite. It grows for a number of days and becomes a spherical and non-pigmented schizont. It divides by schizogony(multiple fission) and forms a large number of uninucleate cells, the cryptomerozoites. During pre-erythrocytic schizogony, blood remains sterile and its inoculation does not produce infection.
Exo-erythrocyic phase : Cryptomerozoites enter fresh liver cells to become metacryptozoites. They undergo schizogony similar to the previous one producing enormous number of metacryptomerozoites.
Metacryptomerozoites, after escaping into bloodstream, invade the erythrocytes or red blood corpuscles. This starts the erythrocytic schizogony. With erythrocytic schizogony, the symptoms of malaria starts appearing.

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Q 11. The causal organism for African sleeping sickness is

A

{tex}Trypanosoma\ cruzi{/tex}

B

{tex}T. rhodesiense{/tex}

C

{tex}T. tangela{/tex}

{tex}T. gambiense{/tex}.

Explanation

{tex}Trypanosoma\ gambiense{/tex} was first observed by Forde in 1901. It causes African sleeping sickness. The disease, also called trypanosomiasis, is found in western and central parts of Africa. The parasite is transmitted by blood sucking tse-tse fly, {tex}Glossina\ palpalis{/tex}. Mouth and contractile vacuole are absent. Food is absorbed through the body surface. The parasite multiplies by fission. In human beings the parasite lives in the blood plasma.It causes trypanosoma fever.It is accompanied by glandular swelling.Later the parasite enters cerebrospinal fluid and damages the brain.It makes the patient lethargic and unconscious. Because of it,the disease leads to death.

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Q 12. Which pair of the following belongs to basidiomycetes?

A

Puffballs and {tex}Claviceps{/tex}

B

{tex}Peziza{/tex} and stink horns

C

{tex}Morchella{/tex} and mushrooms

Birds nest fungi and puffballs

Explanation

The {tex}Cyathus{/tex} is known as bird's nest fungi, and {tex}Lycoperdon{/tex} is called puff balls. Both these fungi belong to the group of club fungi or basidiomycetes. These fungi produce spores inside club shaped fruit bodies called basidium. Typically basidium has 4 basidiospores produced exogenously. {tex}Peziza{/tex} and {tex}Morchella{/tex}, {tex}Claviceps{/tex} belong to ascomycetes (produce ascospores in ascocarps). Mushroom are basidiomycetes fungi.

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Q 13. Bacteria lack alternation of generation because there is

neither syngamy nor reduction division

B

distinct chromosomes are absent

C

no conjugation

D

no exchange of genetic material.

Explanation

In sexual reproduction, syngamy and meiotic division takes place but in bacteria, during sexual reproduction there is no formation of gametes hence no syngamy and reduction division occurs,bacteria lack alternation of generation. Conjugation and exchange of genetic material takes place in bacteria.

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Q 14. {tex}Plasmodium{/tex}, the malarial parasite, belongs to class

A

sarcodina

B

ciliata

sporozoa

D

dinophyceae.

Explanation

These protozoans are adapted to parasitic mode of life. All of them are endoparasites. Locomotory organelles (cilia, flagella, pseudopodia,etc.) are absent. Organelles connected with ingestion are absent. Nutrition is parasitic (absorptive). Sexual reproduction takes place through syngamy. It is followed by spore formation, hence sporozoans. Life cycle consists of two distinct asexual and sexual phases. They may be passed in one (monogenetic) or two different hosts (digenetic).

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Q 15. A bite of tsetse fly may pass (to humans)

A

{tex}Leishmania\ donovani{/tex}

{tex}Trypanosoma\ brucei{/tex}  

 

C

{tex}Entamoeba\ histolytica{/tex}

D

{tex}Plasmodium\ vivax{/tex}.

Explanation

{tex}Trypanosoma\ brucei{/tex} is the parasitic zooflagellate which causes one of the deadliest ailments in human beings called sleeping sickness or trypanosomiasis. The disease is common in humid and subhumid zones of the African continent. The disease is transmitted by shade loving tse-­tse fly ({tex}Glossina\ palpalis{/tex}) which acts as the vehicle that carries the culprit protozoan parasite.

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Q 16. The pathogen {tex}Microsporum{/tex} responsible for ringworm disease in humans belongs to the same kingdom of organisms as that of

A

{tex}Taenia{/tex}, a tapeworm

B

{tex}Wuchereria{/tex}, a filarial worm

{tex}Rhizopus{/tex}, a mould

D

{tex}Ascaris{/tex}, a round worm.

Explanation

The pathogen {tex}Microsporum{/tex} is genus of Kingdom Fungi that causes diseases of skin and hair in humans and animals like dog, cat, monkey. Ringworm is caused by the dermatophyte fungi-species of {tex}Microsporum,\ Trichophyton{/tex} and {tex} Epidermophyton{/tex}.
{tex}Rhizopus{/tex}, a black bread mould belongs to group zygomycetes of Kingdom Fungi.

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Q 17. Puccinia forms uredia and

telia on wheat leaves

B

aecia on barberry leaves

C

pycnia on barberry leaves

D

aecia on wheat leaves.

Explanation

Puccinia is a macrocyclic and heteroecious rust fungus. It produces uredia and telia stages on wheat plant. The spores produced on wheat are uredospores (stage II) and teleutospores (stage III). Uredospores can re-infect wheat but teleutospores cannot do it. Instead they give rise to basidia (stage IV). Basidiospores infect barberry. Pycnidia (stage I) develop on the upper
surface of barberry leaves. Dikaryotisation occurs.It gives rise to aecidial stage (stage zero). Aecidia develop on the lower surface of barberry leaves.They form aecidiospores which infect Wheat. Thus basidial stage is produced on ground and pycnidialand aecidial stages are produced on barberry plant.

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Q 18. The characteristics of Class Reptilia are

A

body covered with moist skin which isdevoid of scales, the ear is represented bya tympanum, alimentary canal, urinary andreproductive tracts open into a commoncloaca

B

fresh water animals with bonyendoskeleton, air-bladder to regulatebuoyancy

C

marine animals with cartilaginous endos-keleton, body covered with placoid scales

body covered with dry and cornified skin, scales over the body are epidermal, they donot have external ears.

Explanation

Reptiles represent the first class ofvertebrates fully adapted for life in dry places on land. The characters of reptiles are in fact a combinationof characters that are found in fish and amphibianson one hand and birds and mammals on the other.
Their exoskeleton is of horny epidermal scales,shields, plates and scutes. The skin is dry, cornifiedand devoid of glands. Reptiles lack external ears andhave immovable eyelids.

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Q 19. Which one of the following groups of animals is correctly matched with its characteristic feature without any exception?

A

Reptilia : possess 3 -chambered heart with an incompletely divided ventricle

B

Chordata : possess a mouth with an upperand a lower jaw

Chondrichthyes : possess cartilaginous endoskeleton

D

Mammalia : give birth to young ones

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Q 20. Which one of the following kinds of animalsare triploblastic?

Flatworms

B

Sponges

C

Ctenophores

D

Corals

Explanation

Triploblastic is a condition which describes an animal having a body composed of three embryonic germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Most multicellular animals belonging to phylum platyhelminthes to phylum chordata are triploblastic. Ctenophores, sponges and corals are diploblastic.

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Q 21. Which one of the following groups of three animals each is correctly matched with their one characteristic morphological feature?

Nephridia of earthworm and Malpighian tubules of cockroach - excretory organs

B

Wings of honey bee and wings of crow - homologous organs

C

Thorn of Bougainvillea and tendrils of Cucurbita - analogous organs

D

Nictitating membrane and blind spot in human eye - vestigial organs

Explanation

Nephridia are excretory organs ofearthworm which consist of a simple or branchedtube formed by the ingrowth of ectoderm with ciliaat the inner end. Excretory products diffuse into thenephridium and are wafted to the exterior by ciliaryaction. Malpighian tubules are the organs that are
involved in the excretion of nitrogenous wastes incockroach. It open into the intestine; selectivelyextract from the blood uric acid, which-together withwater and salts - is deposited into the hindgut andexcreted in the faeces.

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Q 22. One example of animals having a single opening to the outside that serves both as mouth as well as anus is

A

Octopus

B

Asterias

C

Ascidia

Fasciola.

Explanation

In Fasciola (flatworms) the body has a single cavity with one opening to the outside. The single opening functions as both mouth for ingestion(intake of food) and anus for egestion (undigestedfood is passed out). It is called blind sac plan. Other examples are coelenterates.

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Q 23. Which one of the following statements about all the four of Spongilla, leech, dolphin and penguin is correct?

A

Penguin is homoiothermic while the remaining three are poikilothermic.

B

Leech is a fresh water form while all others are marine.

Spongilla has special collared cells called choanocytes, not found in the remaining three.

D

All are bilaterally symmetrical.

Explanation

Spongilla is a common, widely distributed fresh water sponge belonging to phylum porifera.Canal system in Spongilla is essentially of rhagon type with choanocytes ressentially of rhagonchambers. It is not found in leech, dolphin and penguin.

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Q 24. Which one of the following phyla is correctly matched with its two general characteristics?

A

Echinodermata {tex} - {/tex} pentamerous radial symmetry and mostly internal fertilization

B

Mollusca - normally oviparous and develop-ment through a trochophore or veliger larva

Arthropoda - body divided into head, thorax and abdomen and respiration by tracheae

D

Chordata - notochord at some stage and separate anal and urinary openings to the outside.

Explanation

Arthropods are fhe largest phylum of Kingdom Animalia that charateristically possesses an outer body layer - the cuticle. The body is composed of segments usually forming distinct

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Q 25. Maximum nutritional diversity is found in the group

A

fungi

B

animalia

monera

D

plantae.

Explanation

Though the bacterial structure is very simple, they are very complex in behaviour. Compared to many other organisms, bacteria as a group show the most extensive metabolic diversity. Some of the bacteria are autotrophic, i.e., they synthesize their own food from inorganic substrates. They may be photosynthetic autotrophic or chemosynthetic autotrophic. The vast majority of bacteria are heterotrophs, i.e., they do not synthesize their own food but depend on other organisms or on dead organic matter for food.