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Explore popular questions from Biotechnology Principles and Applications for NEET. This collection covers Biotechnology Principles and Applications previous year NEET questions hand picked by experienced teachers.

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Biotechnology Principles and Applications

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Q 1.

A

I - B, II - A, III - D, IV - C

B

I - C, II - A, III - B, IV - D

I - B, II - C, III - A, IV - D

D

I - D, II - A, III - B, IV - C

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Q 2. Which kind of therapy was given in 1990 to a four-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency?

Gene therapy

B

Chemotherapy

C

Immunotherapy

D

Radiation therapy

Explanation


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Q 3. Golden rice is a genetically modified crop plant where the incorporated gene is meant for biosynthesis of

A

omega 3

vitamin A

C

vitamin B

D

vitamin C

Explanation


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Q 4. The introduction of T-DNA into plants involves

A

exposing the plants to cold for a brief period

B

allowing the plant roots to stand in water

infection of the plant by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

D

altering the pH of the soil, then heat-shocking the plants

Explanation


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Q 5. The crops engineered for glyphosate are resistant/tolerant to

A

insects

herbicides

C

fungi

D

bacteria.

Explanation


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Q 6. The first human hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology is

insulin

B

estrogen

C

thyroxin

D

progesterone.

Explanation


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Q 7. Which of the following Bt crops is being grown in India by the farmers?

A

Brinjal

B

Soybean

C

Maize

Cotton

Explanation

Bt cotton is a genetically modified variety of cotton producing an insecticide and is grown in India on a large-scale by farmers.

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Q 8. RNA interference involves

A

synthesis of cDNA and RNA using reverse transcriptase

silencing of specific mRNA due to complementary RNA

C

interference of RNA in synthesis of DNA

D

synthesis of mRNA from DNA.

Explanation



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Q 9. Consumption of which one of the following foods can prevent the kind of blindness associated with vitamin 'A' deficiency{tex}?{/tex}

A

'Flavr Savr' tomato

B

Canolla

Golden rice

D

Bt-Brinjal

Explanation


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Q 10. Tobacco plants resistant to a nematode have been developed by the introduction of DNA that produces (in the host cells)

both sense and anti-sense RNA

B

a particular hormone

C

an antifeedant

D

a toxic protein.

Explanation

Nematode-specific gene was introduced into tobacco plant via Agrobacterium vector. The introduced DNA produced both sense and antisense RNA which were complimentary to each other and formed dsRNA. This RNA interference caused silencing of nematode-specific mRNA and was lethal for the survival of nematode in tobacco root cells.

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Q 11. What is it that forms the basis of DNA fingerprinting{tex}?{/tex}

A

The relative proportions of purines and pyrimidines in DNA.

B

The relative difference in the DNA occurrence in blood, skin and saliva.

C

The relative amount of DNA in the ridges and grooves of the fingerprints.

Satellite DNA occurring as highly repeated short DNA segments.

Explanation



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Q 12. The first clinical gene therapy was given for treating

A

diabetes mellitus

B

chicken pox

C

rheumatoid arthritis

adenosine deaminase deficiency.

Explanation


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Q 13. Maximum number of existing transgenic animals is of

A

fish

mice

C

cow

D

pig

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Q 14. The process of RNA interference (RNAi) has been used in the development of plants resistant to

nematodes

B

fungi

C

viruses

D

insects.

Explanation

RNAi has also been exploited in plants to develop resistance against nematodes and this approach has appeared as a novel tool to control plant parasitic nematodes. dsRNAs can be produced through engineered plants that have the ability to silence target genes in nematode body. The delivery of dsRNAs from plant to nematode occurs by the ingestion process of plant cytoplasm and after its ingestion into the nematode body, accelerates the RNAi, that results in inactivation of targeted genes through dsRNA.

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Q 15. Bacillus thuringiensis forms protein crystals which contain insectidical protein. This protein

binds with epithelial cells of midgut of the insect pest ultimately killing it.

B

is coded by several genes including the gene {tex}cry{/tex}.

C

is activated by acid pH of the foregut of the insect pest.

D

does not kill the carrier bacterium which is itself resistant to this toxin.

Explanation

Soil bacterium Bacillus thruingiensis (Bt) produces proteins that kill certain insects like lepidopterans (tobacco dudworm, armyworm), coleopterans (beetals) and dipterans (files, mosquitoes).Bacillus thuringinesis forms some intracellular protein crystals. These crystals contain a toxic insecticidal protein. The Bt toxin protein exists as inactive toxin and is coverted into an active form due to the alkaline pH of the alimentary canal that solubilities the crystals. The activated toxin binds to the surface of midgut epithelial cells and create pores which cause cell swelling and lysis and finally cause death of the insect. So, the correct answer is 'Binds with epithelial cells of midgut of the insect pest ultimately killing it'

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Q 16. Read the following four statements (A-D) about certain mistakes in two of them.
(A) The first transgenic buffalo, Rosie produced milk which was human alphalactalbumin enriched.
(B) Restriction enzymes are used in isolationof DNA from other macromolecules.
(C) Downstream processing is one of the steps of rDNA technology.
(D) Disarmed pathogen vectors are also used in transfer of rDNA into the host.
Which of the two statements have mistakes?

A

B and C

B

C and D

C

A and C

A and B

Explanation


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Q 17. An improved variety of transgenic basmati rice

A

does not require chemical fertilizers and growth hormones

gives high yield and is rich in vitamin {tex} \mathrm { A } {/tex}

C

is completely resistant to all insect pests and diseases of paddy

D

gives high yield but has no characteristic aroma.

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Q 18. Which one of the following is now being commercially produced by biotechnological procedures{tex}?{/tex}

A

Nicotine

B

Morphine

C

Quinine

Insulin

Explanation


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Q 19. What is antisense technology?

When a piece of RNA that is complementary in sequence is used to stop expression of a specific gene

B

RNA polymerase producing DNA

C

A cell displaying a foreign antigen used for synthesis of antigens

D

Production of somaclonal variants in tissue cultures

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Q 20. {tex} Cry\ I {/tex} endotoxins obtained from {tex}Bacillus \ thuringiensis {/tex} are effective against

A

nematodes

boll worms

C

mosquitoes

D

flies

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Q 21. A transgenic food crop which may help in solving the problem of night blindness in developing countries is

A

Bt soybean

Golden rice

C

Flavr Savr tomatoes

D

Starlink maize.

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Q 22. The DNA fragments separated on an agarose gel can be visualised after staining with

A

Acetocarmine

B

Aniline blue

Ethidium bromide

D

Bromophenol blue

Explanation


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Q 23. DNA fragments are

negatively charged

B

neutral

C

either positively or negatively charged depending on their size

D

positively charged

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Q 24. Stirred-tank bioreactors have been designed for

A

purification of product

B

addition of preservatives to the product

availability of oxygen throughout the process

D

ensuring anaerobic conditions in the culture vessel

Explanation

Stirred tank bioreactors allow taking small volumes of the sample for testing and use of control system that regulates the temperature and pH. These bioreactors ensure oxygen availability during the process.

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Q 25. Which of the following is not a component of downstream processing{tex}?{/tex}

A

Separation

B

Purification

C

Preservation

Expression

Explanation


Column - IColumn - II
1. DNA finger printing A. Tumour
2. Andi B. VNTR
3. Agrobacterium C. Monkey
4. DNA probes D. Radioactive isotopes